Nexus Logo

Historical and Technological Timelines

Historical Chronology

10,000: Neolithic/Horticultural Age begins: Ice Age glaciers retreat; Mediterranean climate (dry summer) develops, also in California, SW Australia, Chile, SW Africa; deserts appear in subtropics; First horticultural villages appear in western, southern, and eastern Asia, invention of the bow and arrow, dogs and reindeer are domesticated, beginnings of settled agriculture, earliest pottery (Japan); world population c.3 million

8500: Jericho founded: walled around 7000 (30 hectares=74 acres) & tower built with flint tools

8000: Copper Age: began in E Mediterranean; world population c.5 million; Sheep and goats are domesticated and the beginnings of rice cultivation in East Asia

c7600-7300: Kennewick Man lived around this time around the banks of the Columbia river in south central Washington state, United States

7419: The "Spirit Cave man" lived around this time in Nevada, United States. Using new dating techniques, researchers discovered that the mummy known as the "Spirit Cave man" was buried 9,417 years ago (as of 1998), about 6,500 years earlier than previously estimated. The mummy was found in 1940 by S.M. and Georgia Wheeler, married archaeologists hired by the state to excavate what they labelled the "Spirit Cave," about 60 miles east of Carson City. Woven bags and other everyday artefacts were found nearby. Two bags contained ashes and bone fragments of two other people who had been cremated. The man had features similar to other earlier skeletons found in North America: a long, relatively small face and a long cranium -- characteristics different than those of modern American Indians.

6800: Jarmo, Kurdistan: earliest known Neolithic village?, Emmer wheat; 1947

6500-5650: Catal Hulyuk is settled (village in Turkey)

6000-5300: Halaf Culture inhabited the Kurdish mountains. Named for the ancient mound of Tel Halaf in what is now Syrian Kurdistan (west of the town of Qamishli), this culture is best known for its easily recognizable style of pottery which, fortunately, was produced in abundance. Exquisitely painted, delicately designed Halaf pottery is easily distinguishable from earlier and later productions

6000: Villages in Akkad/Uri & Sumer/Kiengir founded, wheel invented; Village of Ban Po in China founded

5650: Black Sea Flood occurs around this time

5500: Copper smelted from malachite in Persia; Adam (and his tribe) begin farming in Eden (near Lake Urmia in Iran) around this time according to David Rohl's New Chronology

Click on Red shaded area for a detailed view of Eden

The location of Eden (red shading) in Western Iran and Eastern Turkey.

5500 - 3100: Predynastic Period in Egypt

5300-4300: The Halaf cultural period ends with the arrival of a new culture, and quite likely a new people: the Ubaidians. 'Ubaid Culture' expanded from the plains of Mesopotamia into the mountains. The Ubaidians, or protoEuphratians, as they are sometimes called, caused a hybrid culture to emerge in the mountains, comprised of their own cultural heritage and that of the earlier Halaf. It predominated in most of Kurdistan and Mesopotamia for the ensuing 1000 years.

Of the language or ethnic affliation of the Ubaidians we know nothing beyond conjecture. However, it is they who gave the names Tigris and Euphrates to the rivers of Kurdistan and Mesopotamia, as well as the names of almost all of the cities we now recognize as Sumerian. The cultural impact of the Ubaidians on the mountain communities could have been vast, though apparently it was not particularly deep.

5000: Maize & bean cultivation in Mexico

4800-3600: Pan-p'o, China: Yang-shao culture; millet, pigs, red painted pottery, weaving, writing; earliest known Neolithic site in China; 1952

4800 - 4200: Fayum A Culture in Lower Egypt; Badarian Culture in Upper Egypt

4500-3500: Uruk period of Sumer: Eridu, Ur, Uruk; writing; temples: Al Ubaid & Janna at Eridu, White at Uruk; Mes-Kalam-Dug tomb near Ur; Merimde Culture in Lower Egypt

Sumerian Artefact

4500-1700: Moenjodaro and Harappa in Indus valley domesticate wheat, barley, cotton, horses, buffalo, cattle, and writing (undeciphered) - discovered in 1922

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization

4300-2000: A new culture, and possibly a new people, came to dominate the Kurdistan mountains: the Hurrians. Of the Hurrians we know much more, and the volume of our knowledge becomes greater with time. We know, for example, that the Hurrians spread far and wide into the Zagros-Taurus mountain systems and intruded for a time on the neighbouring plains of Mesopotamia and the Iranian Plateau. However, they never expanded far from the mountains. Their economy was surprisingly integrated and focused, along with their political bonds, which ran generally parallel to the Zagros-Taurus mountains rather than radiating out to the lowlands, as was the case during the preceding Ubaid cultural period. Mountain plain economic exchanges remained of secondary importance, judging by the archaeological remains of goods and their origins.

The Hurrians spoke a language or languages of the north-eastern group of the Caucasian family of languages, distantly related to modern Lezgian and, by extension, to Georgian and Laz. The direction of their expansion is not yet understood and by no means should be taken as having been north-south, in other words, as an expansion out of the Caucuses. (It may well be that it was the Hurrians who introduced Caucasian languages into the Caucasus.)

For a long time the states founded by the Hurrians remained small, until around 2500 BC when larger political-military entities evolved out of the older city-states. Four polities are of special note: Urartu, Mushku, Subaru and Guti/Qutil. The kingdom of Mushku is now believed to have brought about the final downfall of the Hittites in Anatolia. Their name survives in the city of Mush/Mus in north central Kurdistan of Turkey. The Subaru, who operated from the areas north of modern Arbil in central Kurdistan, have left their name in the populous and historic Kurdish tribal confederacy of Zubari, who still inhabit the areas north of Arbil. The name of Mount Ararat is a legacy of the Urartu. The Qutils of central and southern Kurdistan, after gradually unifying the smaller mountain principalities, became strong enough in 2250 BC to actually annex Sumeria and the rest of lowland Mesopotamia. A Qutil dynasty ruled Sumeria for 130 years until 2120 BC.

Two legendary empires, Melidi and Aratta, served the Hurrians in their inter-regional trade with the economies outside the mountains. With much certainty, Melidi is to be identified with modern Malatya, while Aratta is probably to be identified with the rich Qutil archaeological site of Godin Teppa near Kangawar in southern Kurdistan. By the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, the culture and people of Kurdistan appear to have been unified under a Hurrian identity. The fundamental legacy of the Hurrians to the present culture of the Kurds is manifest in the realm of religion, mythology, martial arts, and even genetics. Nearly two-thirds of Kurdish tribal, topological and urban names are also likely of Hurrian origin: Buhtan, Talaban, Jelali, Barzan; Mardin, Ziwiya and Dinawar, to name a few. Mythological and religious symbols present in the art of the later Hurrian dynastics such as the Mannaeans of eastern Kurdistan, and the Lullus of the south, present in part what can still be observed in the Kurdish ancient religion of Yazdanism, better known today by its various denominations, such as Alevism, Yezidism, and Yar- sanism (Ahl-i Haqq).

It is fascinating to recognize the origin of many tattooing motifs still used by traditional Kurds to decorate their bodies as replicas of those which appear on Hurrian figurines. One such is the combination that incorporates serpent, sun disc, dog and comb motifs. In fact some of these Hurrian tattoo motifs are also present in the religious decorative arts of the Yezidi Kurds.

By the end of the Hurrian period, Kurdistan seems to have been culturally and ethnically homogenized to form a single civilization which was identified as such by neighboring cultures and peoples.

4200 - 3700: Amratian Culture (Nagada I) in Upper Egypt

c4000: Beginning of Agrarian Revolution; The Culture of Vra

3761: Oct 7: year 1 of Jewish calendar: year of creation (1 a.m.= 1 anno mundi)

3700 - 3250: Gerzean A Culture (Nagada II) in Upper Egypt

3641: Feb 10: zero (origin) in Mayan calendar

3600: Bronze Age: began in E Mediterranean; world population c.85 million; Troy I (Hisarlik, Turkey) founded (discovered in 1870)

3400: Earliest Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, white painted pottery

3300: The Iceman lived around this time. Preserved virtually intact in a glacier just 50 miles from Innsbruck, Austria, Iceman is still the subject of intense medical and scientific interest. Doctors studying Iceman say he was surprisingly healthy. But the ancient European did have at least one modern ailment -- his lungs look like those of a smoker.

Mummified Iceman

Mummified Iceman

3250 - 3100: Gerzean B Culture (Nagada III) in Upper Egypt

3113: Noah (the Babylonian's called him Utnapishtim) builds an Ark and overcomes the 'Great Flood' - described by Bible: the Sumerian King list (made in 2125) records the following (according to David Rohl's New Chronology):

"After kingship had descended from heaven, Eridu became the seat of kingship. In Eridu Aululim reigned 28,800 years as king. Alalgar reigned 36,000 years. Two kings, reigned 64,800 years. Eridu was abandoned and its kingship was carried off to Bad-tabira. . . .
"Total: Five Cities, eight kings, reigned 241,200 years.
"The FLOOD then swept over. After the Flood had swept over, and kingship had descended from heaven, Kish became the seat of Kingship. In Kish .... Total: twenty-three kings, reigned 24,510 years, 3 months, 3 1/2 days. Kish was defeated; its kingship was carried off to Eanna.
"In Eanna, Meskiaggasher, the son of (the sun god) Utu reigned as En (Priest) and Lugal (King) 324 years--Meskiaggasher entered the sea, ascended the mountains. Enmerkar, the son of Meskiaggasher, the king of erech who had built Erech, reigned 420 years as king. Lugalbanda, the shepherd, reigned 1,200 years. Dumuzi the fisherman, whose city was Kua, reigned 100 years. Gilgamesh, whose father was a nomad (?) reigned 126 years. Urnungal, the son of Gilgamesh, reigned 30 years. Labasher reigned 9 years. Ennundaranna reigned 8 years. Meshede reigned 36 years. Melamanna reigned 6 years. Lugalkidul reigned 36 years. Total: twelve kings, reigned 2,130 years. Erech was defeated, its kingship was carried off to Ur...."

3100-2500: Archaic Sumerian Cuneiform literature, Semitic invasion

3000-2200: Early Minoan [Source of Atlantis Myth?]: on Crete, pictographic writing; Old Kingdom of Egypt: Isis & Osiris resurrection cult, 12-month 365-day calendar without solar/lunar adjustment, libraries; Zoser & Imhotep built 1st step pyramid, at Saqqara, 61 meters tall; Snefru built 1st true pyramid at Dashur, conquered Sinai & copper mines; Khufu (Cheops) built Great Pyramid at Giza, 137 meters tall; Khafre built 2nd Great Pyramid & Great Sphinx at Giza; Menkaure built 3rd & last Great Pyramid at Giza, Ra sun god temple at Heliopolis; Pepi's papyrus "Instructions to a Son"

3000: Potato cultivation in Peru; world population c.100 million; Huai-an, China: Ch'ing-lien-kang culture; paddy rice, sheep, dogs, pigs, cattle; 1951; also Lung-shan of Ch'eng-tzu-yai: black & white pottery; Heskiagkasher (biblical Cush) ruled Uruk around this time (according to David Rohl's New Chronology)

sumer.gif (9778 bytes)

Earliest Civilization (Sumer, Egypt, Akkad) from 3200 to 2052 BC

2920-2770: 1st dynasty rulers in Egypt: Menes (Aha), Djer, Wadj, Den (Udimu), Anendjib, Semerkhet, Kaa 

2900: Fuxi (Fu Hsi): 1st Chinese King, civilized, yin/yang, myth? [Shu ching]; Enmerkar (biblical Nimrod) ruled Uruk around this time (according to David Rohl's New Chronology)

2800: Etana of Kish united Sumerian city-states Kish, Uruk, Ur, Sippar, Akshak Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, Larsa after "Great Flood"; myth?; base 6 & 12 numbers, metal coins; Lugalbanda ruled Uruk around this time (according to David Rohl's New Chronology)

2781-2662: 1st Dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2770 - 2650: 2nd dynasty rulers in Egypt: Hetepsekhemwy, Reneb, Ninetjer, Peribsen, Khasekhemwy

2750: Tyre: founded by Phoenicians, also Sidon & Byblos [Herodotus]

2662-2511: 2nd dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2650 - 2152: Old Kingdom in Egypt (Dynasties 3-6): The age of the Pyramid. The pyramids of Giza and Dahshur are built during this period.

2650-2575: 3rd Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Zanakht 2650 - 2630, Netjerykhet (Djoser) 2630 - 2611, Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti) 2611 - 2603, Khaba 2603 - 2599, Huni 2599 - 2575

2630-2600: Men-barage-si: King of Kish (Kishi), disarmed Elam on east border

2589-2566: The Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) built around this time; 

2588: Dumuzi ruled Uruk around this time according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2575-2464: 4th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Snofru 2575 - 2551, Khufu (Cheops) 2551 - 2528, Radjedef 2528 - 2520, Khafre (Chephren) 2520 - 2494, Menkaure (Mycerinus) 2490 - 2472, Shepseskaf 2472 - 2467

2511-2456: 3rd dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2500-2300: Classical Sumerian Cuneiform literature: largely records of Lagash

2500-2300-2205: Yao - Shun: 2nd & 3rd Chinese emperors, myth? [Shu ching]

2494-2465: Ur-Nanshe: King of Lagash, border fights with Umma

2487: Gilgamesh ruled Uruk around this time (according to legend he built the walls of Uruk) - 'Epic of Gilgamesh' (see 1200) according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2480-2461: Mes-Ane-pada: King of Ur, also "King of Kish" = controlled Sumer?

2466-2455: Akurgal: King of Lagash, son of Ur-Nanshe, lost ground to Umma

2465-2323: 5th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Userkaf 2465 - 2458, Sahure 2458 - 2446, Neferirkare Kakai 2446 - 2426, Shepseskare Ini 2426 - 2419, Raneferef 2419 - 2416, Niuserre Izi 2416 - 2392, Menkauhor 2396 - 2388, Djedkare Izezi 2388 - 2356, Wenis 2356 - 2323

2456-2346: 4th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2454-2425-2405: Eannatum - Enannatum: Kings of Lagash, sons of Akurgal

2450-1850: Early Akkadian (Akkade) Cuneiform literature

agade.jpg (55517 bytes)

Agade/Akkadian Empire (2400-2200 BC)

2421-2410-2401: Elulu - Balulu: Kings of Ur

2404-2375: Entemena: King of Lagash, dug irrigation canal to Tigris river

2400-2391: Shagkush-anna: King of Ur, "Priest King of Sumer, King of Nation"; Gish-Shag-ki-dug: King of Umma

c2400: Mari Tablets: Cuneiform

2380-2361: Lugal-kinishe-dudu: King of Umma, control. Ur & Uruk, Lagash treaty

2351-2340: Uru-inim-gina (Uru-Ka-gina): King of Lagash, reforms, early law?

2350: Town of Ai destroyed & abandoned; Ebla Tablets: from Tell Mardikh in NW Syria, largest single find of 3rd millennium bce Cuneiform texts; discovered 1974

2348: Urlugal ruled Uruk around this time according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2346-2220: 5th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2340-2316: Lugal-zage-si: King of Umma, sacked Lagash, "King of the Countries"

2340-2315: Sargon: King of Akkad, conquered Sumer, "King of the Four Quarters"

2323-2152: 6th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Teti 2323 - 2291, Pepi I (Meryre) 2289 - 2255, Merenre Nemtyemzaf 2255 - 2246, Pepi II (Neferkare) 2246 - 2152

2315-2307: Rimush: King of Akkad, reign of terror, raided Elam, assassinated

2306-2292: Manishtusu: King of Akkad, lost southern Sumer, assassinated

2300-2000: New Sumerian Cuneiform: Akkadian (Semitic) becomes dominant, Akkad & Sumer mapped, Ishtar & Inanna cult, lunisolar 12-month calendar of alternating 29/30 days each beginning on new crescent plus annual adjust to solar

2300: Enheduana: Ur High Priestess, Sargon's daughter, 1st named author, hymns

2291-2255: Naram-Suen: King of Akkad, Sumer & Elam, "The Mighty One", deified

2220-2054: 6th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

2217-2193: Shar-kali-sharri: King of Akkad, lost Elam, raided Gutium, assassinated.

2200-1500: Middle Minoan: on Crete, snake & bull cults, mother-goddess, dying god Zeus Kretagenes (dies & born again), olive cultivation, Palace of Minos at Knossos, Phaistos, Mallia, Zakro, base10 numbers with Linear-A script

2183 - 1752: Xia (Hsia) dynasty: China, Yu the Great?, Erlitou palace?, bronze, lunisolar calendar (Hsia-li), 5-tone music scale, equinox & solstice calc. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century B.C. Until scientific excavations were made at early bronze-age sites at Anyang, Henan Province, in 1928, it was difficult to separate myth from reality in regard to the Xia. But since then, and especially in the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. At minimum, the Xia period marked an evolutionary stage between the late Neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty.

2200: Troy II: sacked in Great Fire, rich walled coastal trade town

2189-2169-2154: Dudu - Shu-Turul: Kings of Akkad, controlled Sumer, decline

2155-2142: Ur-Baba: King of Lagash

2150 - 1986: First Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties 7-11): This was a very troubled time. There was a breakdown of centralized government, with many kings having overlapping reigns. Montuhotep established order from his capital at Thebes.

2150-2135: Dynasties 7 and 8 rule in Egypt

2148-2147: La'arab: King of Gutium, conquered Akkad from east, raided Sumer

2141-2122: Gudea: King of Lagash, "Cylinders of Gudea", son-in-law of Ur-Baba

2135-1986: Dynasties 9 and 10 rule in Egypt

2133-2113: Utukhegal (Utu-hegal): King of Uruk, defeated foreign Gutium dynasty in 2130: Sumerian 'King List' written on clay tablet in 2125 and was dated by the scribe who wrote it in the reign of King Utukhegal of Erech (Uruk)

2112-2095: Ur-Nammu: King of Ur, "Laws of Ur-Nammu": 1st extant law code

2094-2047: Shulgi: King of Ur, son of Ur-Nammu, northwest wall against Dedanum

2074-1986: 11th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Inyotef I (Sehertawy) 2074 - 2064, Inyotef II (Wahankh) 2064 - 2015, Inyotef III (Nakhtnebtepnefer) 2015 - 2007, Montuhotep II 2007 - 1986

2067-1939: 8th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology (Apparently both the 7th and 8th dynasties were contemporaneous)

2054-2039: 7th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology (Apparently both the 7th and 8th dynasties were contemporaneous)

2046-2038-2029: Amar-suena - Shu-Suen: Kings of Ur, sons of Shulgi, Mardu wall

2028-2004: Ibbi-Suen: King of Ur, son of Shu-Suen, invasions, crop failures...

2000-600: 1st of 7 periods of Chinese literature

c2000: Horse riders invaded from central Asia: Scythians, Centaurs, Satyrs; The vanguards of the Indo-European speaking tribal immigrants, such as the Hittites and Mittanis, had arrived in southwestern Asia.

2000-1300: Stonehenge: near Salisbury, England; pre-Druidic

1986 - 1759: Middle Kingdom in Egypt (Dynasties 11-12): This period is marked with foreign trade and enormous building projects. There is a refinement in the making of jewelry. Prosperity and renaissance existed for a long period of time, but eventually, internal problems become apparent; 24 sign alphabet, 24 hours/day, sun-star-water clocks, Edwin Smith Papyrus of medicine & surgery, "Story of Sinuhe", knotted ropes of 3-4-5 right triangle

1986-1937: The 11th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Montuhotep II (Nebhepetre) 1986 - 1956, Montuhotep III (Sankhkare) 1956 - 1944, Montuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1944 - 1937

babylonia.jpg (53609 bytes)

Babylonian Empire (1950-1600 BC)

1939-1839: 10th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology
(Apparently both the 10th and 11th dynasties were contemporaneous)

1939-1796: 11th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology
(Apparently both the 10th and 11th dynasties were contemporaneous)

1937-1759: 12th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Amenemhet I (Sehetepibre) 1937 - 1908, Senwosret I (Kheperkare) 1917 - 1872, Amenemhet II (Nubkaure) 1875 - 1840, Senwosret II (Khakheperre) 1842 - 1836, Senwosret III (Khakaure) 1836 - 1817, Amenemhet III (Nimaatre) 1817 - 1772, Amenemhet IV (Maakherure) 1772 - 1763, Neferusobek (Sobekkare) 1763 - 1759

1934-1924: Laws of Lipit-Ishtar of Sumer

1900-1595: Amorites (Mardu) rule Akkad & Sumer (North & South Babylonia)

1900: Laws of Eshnunna of Babylonia

1875-1840: Pharaoh Amenemhet II (Nubkaure): mines in Nubia & Sinai, contact with Crete

1842 - 1836: Pharaoh Sesostris II or Senwosret II (Khakheperre) : Fayyumic depression converted to farm land

1836 - 1817: Pharaoh Sesostris III or Senwosret III (Khakaure): invaded Canaan, fortified Nile 2nd cataract

1822-1763: Rim-Sin: King of Larsa, Sumer; conquered by Hammurapi (Hammurabi)

1813-1781-1741: Shamshi-Adad I - Ishme-Dagan I: Assyrian Kings; Amorites

1800: Abraham born in Ur, Mesopotamia according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1796-1632: 12th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1792-1750: Hammurabi of Babylon: King of united Babylonia, Marduk cult, Zodiac invented

1775: Abraham leaves his home at Haran in Mesopotamia and travels with followers to Palestine according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1759 - 1570: Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties 13-17): Egypt defeated & ruled by Semitic Hyksos "Shepherd Kings". Eventually the Theban princes regain power. Kamose defeats the Hyksos.

1759-1621: 13th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: 21 kings for around 63 years then, Neferhotep I 1696 - 1686
Sihathor 1685 - 1685, Sobekhotep IV 1685 - 1678, Sobekhotep V 1678 - 1674, Iaib 1674 - 1664, Ay 1664 - 1641, 9 kings for circa 20 years

1758: Laws of Hammurabi (Hammurabi): "eye for an eye"

1752 - 1111: Shang dynasty: China united around Yellow River plain, Anyang, Cheng-chou, silk, proto-porcelain, sun height in relation to incline of polar axis, magic-squares /permutations /right-triangle-formulas.

Shang Dynasty of China

Shang Dynasty of China

The Shang dynasty (also called the Yin dynasty in its later stages) is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler. Its civilization was based on agriculture, augmented by hunting and animal husbandry. Two important events of the period were the development of a writing system, as revealed in archaic Chinese inscriptions found on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones (commonly called oracle bones or, and the use of bronze metallurgy. A number of ceremonial bronze vessels with inscriptions date from the Shang period; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.

A line of hereditary Shang kings ruled over much of northern China, and Shang troops fought frequent wars with neighboring settlements and nomadic herdsmen from the inner Asian steppes. The capitals, one of which was at the site of the modern city of Anyang, were centers of glittering court life. Court rituals to propitiate spirits and to honor sacred ancestors were highly developed. In addition to his secular position, the king was the head of the ancestor- and spirit-worship cult. Evidence from the royal tombs indicates that royal personages were buried with articles of value, presumably for use in the afterlife. Perhaps for the same reason, hundreds of commoners, who may have been slaves, were buried alive with the royal corpse.

1749-1712: Samsuiluna: Babylonian King, battled with Kassites, Sealand

1720: The ancient (Canaanite and Israelite) city of Hebron was founded at Tel Rumeida. The city's history has been inseparably linked with the Cave of Machpelah, which the Patriarch Abraham purchased from Ephron the Hittite for 400 silver shekels (Genesis 23), as a family tomb. As recorded in Genesis, the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the Matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca and Leah, are buried there, and -- according to a Jewish tradition -- Adam and Eve are also buried there.

1696: Birth of Joseph according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1679: Joseph sold as a domestic slave to Potiphar at 17 yrs according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1666: 13 years after arriving in Egypt, Joseph becomes the Egyptian Vizier according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1662: Hebrews leave Canaan and move to Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1659: Start of Egyptian famine with Joseph  as Vizier after 8 years according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1658: Start of Hebrew sojourn in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

c1650: Hattusilis I: King of the Hittites, founded Hittite Empire (c1650-1200)

1632-1445: 13th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology; Joseph dies in Egypt around 1625

1621-1539: 14th Dynasty rules Egypt, 15th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Salitis, Bnon, Apachnan (Khian), Apophis (Auserre Apepi), Khamudi, 16th Dynasty rules in Egypt, 17th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Tao I (Senakhtenre), Tao II (Sekenenre), Kamose (Wadjkheperre)

1600-1100: Mycenaeans: of mainland Greece, Palace of Mycenae, Linear-B script

1595: Mursilis I the Hittite sacked Babylon ending Hammurapi (Amorite) dynasty

1595-1157: Kassites (mountain peoples?) ruled Babylonia (Akkad & Sumer)

kassite.jpg (53308 bytes)

Kassite Empire (1550-1100 BC)

1539 - 1070: New Kingdom (Dynasties 18-20) founded by Pharaoh Amasis I or Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) who overthrew the Hyksos: Extreme prosperity and renaissance in art and building projects mark the beginning of this period. Towards the end of the 19th Dynasty the increasing power of the priesthood corrupts the central government. During the 20th Dynasty tomb robbing is done by officials. The priesthood becomes hereditary and begins to assume secular power. The government breaks down.

1539-1295: 18th dynasty rulers in Egypt: Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) 1539 - 1514, Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) 1514 - 1493, Thutmose I (Akheperkare) 1493 - 1481, Thutmose II (Akheperenre) 1481 - 1479, Hatshepsut (Maatkare) 1473 - 1458, Thutmose III (Menkheperre) 1479 - 1425, Amenhotep II (Akheperure) 1427 - 1392, Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) 1392 - 1382, Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) 1382 - 1344, Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten 1352 - 1336, Neferneferuaten 1341 - 1337, Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) 1337 - 1336, Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) 1336 - 1327, Ay (Kheperkheperure) 1327 - 1323, Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) 1323 - 1295

1534: Hebrew prophet Moses born around this time in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1525-1510: Telipinus: King of the Hittites

1520, 1470: Santorini, Greece destroyed in major eruptions [Plato's Atlantis?]

1500-700: Vedic period of Indian Sanskrit lit.: "Rig-Veda", Aryans invade valley of the River Indus

1500-1200: Akkadian Cuneiform became common language of Near East

1500-1000: Late Minoan: on Crete, Mycenaean influence, Linear-B script

c1500: Iron Age: by Hittites near Black Sea, "metal from heaven" = meteorites; Medes & Persians invaded Iranian plateau; Parattarna: 1st King of Mitanni, capital at Washukanni between Hittites & Assyria; Nuzi Tablets: Cuneiform, found near Kirkuk, Iraq

Sheep bones carved with Chinese characters are created. Characters found on the bones include an upside-down "V" that experts deciphered as the Chinese word for "six" and a symbol that means "divination,". Six other characters carved roughly but deeply onto the two fragments of shoulder blade have not been deciphered as of 1998. The bones were unearthed from a pit at an ancient sacrificial site in east China's Shandong province but Xinhua did not report when they were discovered.

In ancient China, bones were used by soothsayers who attempted to divine the future. These fortunetellers heated bones or turtle shells until they cracked and then "read" the fissures in the bone or shell to predict the likelihood of such things as rainfall. In China's Shang Dynasty, more than 3,000 years ago, divining was often used by kings who wanted to know their future or have problems answered. Sometimes the forecast and eventual outcome were carved onto bones, a procedure that has provided some of the earliest known examples of Chinese writing.

Bones with inscriptions written by oracles were first found in central China's Henan province in ruins dating back to the late Shang Dynasty, around 1200 B.C. Xinhua said. So far, only about 1,000 of the more than 10,000 characters found in Henan have been deciphered, it added. Inscriptions on the Shandong sheep blades, meanwhile, are believed to be nearly 300 years older than those found in Henan, offering even earlier clues about the development of Chinese language, Xinhua said.

The bones, which had been burnt, were stored at the bottom of a pit crisscrossed with beams. Pottery and stoneware found with the bones were typical of China's ancient Yueshi culture that existed from 1500 B.C. to 2000 B.C., Xinhua said. It quoted unnamed experts as saying that the inscriptions on the sheep bones "are the oldest written language ever found."

But there are even earlier examples of Chinese writing, with the earliest being symbols on neolithic pottery found near Xi'an, home of China's famed terra cotta warriors, that dates back as far as 8,000 to 5,000 B.C, according to the Cambridge Encyclopedia of China.

1480-1450: Idrimi: King of Alalakh (Tell Atshanah IV) Syria, Cuneiform Tablets

1479-1425: Pharaoh Thutmose III (Menkheperre): conquered & annexed Canaan, Syria, Sudan

1454: Hebrew Exodus lead by Prophet Moses during the reign of Pharaoh Dudimose: Hebrews wander in the Sinai desert for 40 years according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1445-1284: 15th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1427-1392: Pharaoh Amenhotep II (Akheperure): 3 Asian (Canaan & Syria) military campaigns

1413-1014: The 'Judges' period of Hebrew history according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1392-1382: Pharaoh Thutmose IV (Menkheperure): "Conqueror of Haru (Canaan & Syria)", & Nubia

1390-1355: Tushratta: King of Mitanni (Hanigalbat,Hurrian,Horites), assassinated.

1382-1344: Pharaoh Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre): height of empire, Babylonian correspondence 14th: Ugarit (Ras Shamra, Syria): 30-sign alphabet using Cuneiform on clay

1375-1334: Suppiluliumas I: King of the Hittites, height of Hittite Empire, built Emar (Tell Meskene, Syria): Akkadian Cuneiform tablets found in 1972


Hittite Kingdom circa 1350 BC

1374-1360-1333: Kadashman-Enlil - Burnaburiash II: Babylonian Kings

1363-1328: Ashur-uballit I: Assyrian King, founded Assyrian Empire (1363-612)

assyria.jpg (56124 bytes)

Assyrian Empire (1400-1200 BC)


1352-1336: Amarna period of Egypt: Pharaoh Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten, Queen Nefertiti (Smenkhare?), 1st Monotheist?, built capital at Amarna, Cuneiform tablets found in 1887, "Hymns to Aton", Ps 118:22-23?, 'realism' in art

1336-1327: Pharaoh Tutankhamen

1334-1306: Mursilis II: Hittite King, empire reached Aegean Sea? Syria?

1332-1308: Kurigalzu II: Babylonian King, campaigned against Elam & Assyria

1323-1295: Pharaoh Horemheb (Djeserkheperure)

1306-1282: Muwatallis: Hittite King, fought with Egypt for control of Syria

1300: ancient site of Jericho abandoned, wall had fallen in 2350; 1st wave of Hebrew Canaan invasion from Kadesh-barnea by Joshua [Nm 33]

1300-600: Olmec culture of Mexico flourishes

1295-1186: 19th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Ramses I (Menpehtyre) 1295 - 1294, Seti I (Menmaatre) 1294 - 1279, Ramses II (Usermaatresetepenre) 1279 - 1213, Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) 1213 - 1203, Amenmesse (Menmire) 1203 - 1200, Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre) 1200 - 1194, Siptah (Akhenresetepenre) 1194 - 1188, Tausert (Sitremeritamun) 1188 - 1186

1294-1279: Pharaoh Seti I (Menmaatre): conquered Libya, Canaan campaigns to check Hittite advance

1290-1183: 17th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology
(Apparently both the 16th and 17th dynasties were contemporaneous)

1288: Battle of Kadesh: Egypt v. Hittites, Hittites advanced south to Damascus

1284-1194: 16th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology
(Apparently both the 16th and 17th dynasties were contemporaneous)

1279-1213: Pharaoh Ramses II (Usermaatresetepenre): period of Hebrew (Egyptian: 'aperu?) Exodus?

1273-1244-1207: Shalmaneser I - Tukulti-Ninurta I: Assyrian Kings;found Nimrud

1269: peace treaty between Ramses II of Egypt & Hattusilis III the Hittite, Egyptian bases at Damascus & Sumur on coast, Hittites just north in Syria

Go to Top

1250-1200: Lachish, Kirjath-sepher/Debir, Eglon, Hazor, Bethel destroyed

1250: Troy VI: sacked (Homer's Trojan War? Earthquakes? Sea Peoples?)

c1250: 2nd wave of Hebrew Canaan invasion from Kadesh-barnea by Leah [Nm 21:21]; Lachish Bowl: 7 letters of proto-Canaanite left-to-right writing, 1935

c1240: Egyptian Book of the Dead written

1234: Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria sacked Babylon, took golden Marduk god

1219: Sea Peoples: attack Egypt; Libyan, Shardana, Lukka, Teresh, Shekelesh, Ekwesh

sea_peoples.jpg (64032 bytes)

'Sea Peoples' in the Late Bronze Age

1213-1203: Pharaoh Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat): plundered Canaan, defeated Askelon, captured Gezer, annihilated Yaro'am (town just south of Lake Galilee): "Israel [male gender, a tribe not a land] is laid waste and his seed is not.", earliest known reference to Israel

c1200-1020: Hebrew Joshua and his successors (the Judges) begin conquest of Palestine

1200: Gilgamesh Epic: 12 tablets compiled in Uruk by Sin-liqiunninni (see 2487); Hittite Empire (c1650-1200) is destroyed by the Kingdom of Mushku (a Hurrian state); camel domesticated by fully nomadic Arabian Desert tribes (Bedouin); Phoenician alphabet of 22 consonants; The Hindu avatar, Krishna, lives around this time?; The avalanche of Indo-European tribes occurred around this time, raining havoc on the economy and settled culture in the mountains and lowlands alike of Kurdistan. The north was settled by the Haiks, known to us as the Armenians, while the rest of the mountains became targets of settlement for various Iranic peoples, such as the Medes, Persians, Scythians, Sarmathians and Sagarthians (whose name survives in the name of the Zagros mountains).

1200-900/750: 1st Dark Age: Many city-states and kingdoms in the Near East and Greece were weakened or obliterated in the disruptions of the period 1200-1000 B.C., and these misfortunes brought grinding poverty to many of the people who did survive the troubles of this age. Enormous difficulties impede our understanding of the history of this troubled period and of the period of recovery that followed because few literary or documentary sources exist to supplement the incomplete information provided by archaeology. Both because conditions were so gloomy for so many people and because we have only a dim view of what happened in these years, it is customary to refer to the era beginning in the twelfth/eleventh centuries as a Dark Age: the fortunes of the people of the time seem generally dark, as does our understanding of the period. The Near East recovered its strength much sooner than did Greece, ending its Dark Age by around 900 B.C. The Greeks did not fully recover until perhaps a hundred and fifty years after that.

1194-960: 18th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1186-1069: 20th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) 1186 - 1184, Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun) 1184 - 1153, Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) 1153 - 1147, Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre) 1147 - 1143, Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun) 1143 - 1136, Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre) 1136 - 1129, Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun) 1129 - 1126, Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre) 1126 - 1108, Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre) 1108 - 1099, Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah) 1099 - 1069

1184-1153: Pharaoh Ramses III (Usermaatremeryamun) : last of the great Egyptian Kings

1183: Sea Peoples: attack Ramses in Canaan; Tjeker, Denyen, Peleset, Weshesh

1180: Troy VIIa: sacked (Sea Peoples? ...) [walled area c.2x Troy II]

1157: Elam conquered Babylonia, ended Kassite dynasty, took golden Marduk god

c1150: Wen Wang: King of Zhou (western) China, "Count of the West", I Ching?

1146-1123: Nebuchadnezzar I: Babylonian King, reclaimed Marduk god from Elam, Enuma Elish standardized on 7 Tablets in Cuneiform (1876)

c1125: Battle of Deborah: Israel v. Canaan, key battle for Hebrews [Judg 4,5]

1111-771: Western Zhou (Chou) dynasty of China: western at Hao, eastern at Luoyi, Beijing founded, script fully developed (Chou wen), brush & ink painting.

The last Shang ruler, a despot according to standard Chinese accounts, was overthrown by a chieftain of a frontier tribe called Zhou, which had settled in the Wei Valley in modern Shaanxi Province. The Zhou dynasty had its capital at Hao, near the city of Xi'an , or Chang'an, as it was known in its heyday in the imperial period. Sharing the language and culture of the Shang, the early Zhou rulers, through conquest and colonization, gradually sinicized, that is, extended Shang culture through much of China Proper north of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). The Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other, from 1111 to 221 B.C. It was philosophers of this period who first enunciated the doctrine of the "mandate of heaven" (tianming), the notion that the ruler (the "son of heaven" or governed by divine right but that his dethronement would prove that he had lost the mandate. The doctrine explained and justified the demise of the two earlier dynasties and at the same time supported the legitimacy of present and future rulers.

The term feudal has often been applied to the Zhou period because the Zhou's early decentralized rule invites comparison with medieval rule in Europe. At most, however, the early Zhou system was proto-feudal, being a more sophisticated version of earlier tribal organization, in which effective control depended more on familial ties than on feudal legal bonds. Whatever feudal elements there may have been decreased as time went on. The Zhou amalgam of city-states became progressively centralized and established increasingly impersonal political and economic institutions. These developments, which probably occurred in the latter Zhou period, were manifested in greater central control over local governments and a more routinized agricultural taxation.

In 771 B.C. the Zhou court was sacked, and its king was killed by invading barbarians who were allied with rebel lords. The capital was moved eastward to Luoyang in present-day Henan Province. Because of this shift, historians divide the Zhou era into Western Zhou (1111-771 B.C.) and Eastern Zhou (770-221 B.C.). With the royal line broken, the power of the Zhou court gradually diminished; the fragmentation of the kingdom accelerated. Eastern Zhou divides into two subperiods. The first, from 770 to 476 B.C., is called the Spring and Autumn Period, after a famous historical chronicle of the time; the second is known as the Warring States Period (475-221 B.C.).

1116-1078: Tiglath-pileser I: Assyrian King, conquered Babylonia but prevented from taking Syria by Arameans who controlled & occupied Syria at this time

1100-400: Chavin culture of Peru

c1100: Izbet Sartah Abecedary potsherd: Old Hebrew alphabet left-to-right; 1974

1070 - 715: The 3rd Intermediate Period of Egypt (Dynasties 21-24), Assyrian Domination: The capital moves from Tanis to Libya, to Nubia, to Thebes, to Sais, and then back to Nubia and Thebes.

1070-945: 21st Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Smedes 1070-1044, Amenemnisu 1040, Psusennes I 1040-992, Amenope 993-984, Osochor 984-978, Siamun 978-959, Psusennes II 959-945

c1050: Philistines: Peleset Sea Peoples?, settled in Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gath, Ekron; defeated Hebrews in Battle of Aphek; sacked Shiloh [1 Sam 4]

1020-1000: Saul: first King of Israel, defeated by Philistines [1 Sam. 11:15]

1014-937: United Monarchy period of Hebrew history according to David Rohl's New Chronology

1000-961: David: King of united Israel, capital/fortress Jerusalem, Ark of Covenant, gained control of "King's Highway" trade route from Damascus to Edom, traded with Phoenicians at Tyre & Sidon, quelled internal revolts

Ancient Israel under David

Israel under King David

1000-586: 1st period (Classical) of Hebrew literature in Old Hebrew alphabet: Song of Deborah [Jdg 5], Song of Miriam [Exo 15:1-18], Song of Songs

c1000: Troy VIIb2: Thracian settlement, site abandoned? (rebuilt as Ilium c700); King Ahiram of Byblos Sarcophagus Inscription: in Phoenician alphabet 10th: Greek alphabet, Ionians exiled from Greece to Asia Minor where they founded 12 cities including Miletus & Ephesus, Temple of Hera in Olympia; India: steel, 360 day calendar with solar adjustment; Persian Prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra) lived around this time?: Zoroastrianism founded; Medes and Persians arrived on the eastern flanks of the Zagros mountains (South West Asia)

1000-950: Southern Arabian Peninsula (modern Yemen) was ruled by the Mineans. The kingdom depended for their wealth on the spice trade. Aromatics such as myrrh and frankincense were greatly prized in the ancient civilized world and were used as part of various rituals in many cultures, including Egyptian, Greek and Roman. In the 11th century BC, land routes through Arabia were greatly improved by using the camel as a beast of burden, and frankincense was carried from its production centre at Qana (now known as Bir 'Ali) to Gaza in Egypt. The camel caravans also carried gold and other precious goods which arrived in Qana by sea from India. The Minaeans established their capital at Karna (now known as Sadah)

963-854: 19th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

961-922: Solomon: King of Israel, Jerusalem Temple, "Ten Commandments", height of culture, reign of peace, controlled Via Maris (Sea Road) trade route along Philistian coast, leading trade state between Egypt & Asia Minor, married Pharaoh's daughter, spice trade with Queen of Sheba (Sabaeans?), sea route from Ezion-geber on Red Sea to Ophir Africa, mines

Ancient Israel under Solomon

Israel under King Solomon

950-115: The Minaeans of southern Arabia are superseded by the Sabaeans. The Sabaean capital was Ma'rib, where a large temple was built - Sabaean civilization reached its peak with the transfer of power from the mukarribs (priest-kings) to autocratic monarchs (7th century BC). The ancient city, in a fertile oasis irrigated by the impounded waters of the Ma'rib Dam, has been called "the Paris of the ancient world." It was on one of the principal caravan routes that linked the Mediterranean world and the Arabian Peninsula, and it prospered especially because of its trading monopoly of frankincense and myrrh from Yemen and the southern coastal region of Hadhramaut. 

The Sabaean civilization was based not only on the spice trade, but also on agriculture. The impressive dam, built at Ma'rib in the 8th century BC, provided irrigation for farmland and stood for over a millennium. Some Sabaean carved inscriptions from this period are still extant. The Himyarites established their capital at Dhafar (now just a small village in the Ibb region) and gradually absorbed the Sabaean kingdom. They were culturally inferior to the Sabaeans and traded from the port of al-Muza on the Red Sea. By the first century BC, the area had been conquered by the Romans.

945-712: 22nd dynasty rulers in Egypt: Shoshenq I 945-924, Osorkon I 924-909, Takelot 909--?, Shoshenq II ?--883, Osorkon II 883-855, Takelot II 860-835, Shoshenq III 835-783, Pami 783-773
Shoshenq IV 773-735, Osorkon IV 735-712

945-924: Pharaoh Shoshenq I: founded Libyan Dynasty (22nd, 945-712) at Tanis, harbored Israel's Jeroboam, seeded split [1 Kings 11:40], Jerusalem spared after Rehoboam payed tribute of Temple & Palace treasures [1 Kings 14:25,2 Chr 12:2-9]

937-724: Divided Monarchy history of Israel according to David Rohl's New Chronology

937-587: Divided Monarchy history of Judah according to David Rohl's New Chronology

934-912-891: Ashur-dan II - Adad-nerari II: Assyrian Kings, wars with Syria

922: United Israel split into Israel & Judah; Ammon, Moab, Edom independent

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah

922-907: Jeroboam I: King of Israel (Northern Kingdom, 10 tribes) [1 Kings 11-14...]

922-917: Rehoboam I: King of Judah (Southern Kingdom, 2 tribes:Judah, Benjamin)

917-908: Abijam: King of Judah, son of Rehoboam, campaigned against Israel

908-867: Asa: King of Judah, son of Abijam [1 Kings 14:31-15:24,1 Chr 3:10, 2 Chr 13-16]

907-906: Nadab: King of Israel, son of Jeroboam [1 Kings 14:20, 15:25-31]

906-883: Baasha ben Ahijah: King of Israel, killed entire Jeroboam family 9th: Babylonian Akkadian Cuneiform becomes common language of Mediterranean; Dorian Greeks invaded Peloponnesus & settled in Corinth; King Menelik I of Ethiopia the son of King Solomon of Israel & Queen of Sheba, myth?

890-884-860: Tukulti-Ninurta II - Ashurnasirpal II: Assyrian Kings; Syrian wars

883: Ben-hadad I King of Damascus sacked Israel for Asa of Judah [1 Kings 15:17-20]

882-871: Omri: King of Israel, Judah & Tyre alliance, founded Samaria in 879

880-844: Aramu: King of Urartu (Armenia); Urartu Tablets in Akkadian Cuneiform

879-842: Ben-hadad II: King of Damascus (Syria, Aram), murdered by Hazael

871-852: Ahab: King of Israel, son of Omri, regained King's Highway, married King of Tyre's daughter Jezebel bringing cult of Melqart & temple to Samaria

868-813: 20th dynasty rulers in Egypt according to David Rohl's New Chronology

859-825-812: Shalmaneser III - Shamshi-Adad V: Assyrian Kings

853: Battle of Qarqar: Assyria defeated by Syrian alliance which included Ahab

851-842: Jehoram: King of Israel, son of Ahab [2 Kings 1:17, 3:1, 5-9,2 Chr 22:5-6]

850: Mesha Victory Stele: stone in Old Hebrew, records victory (attributed to Chemosh god) of King Mesha of Moab against Kings Omri & Ahab, 1868 [cf. 2 Kings 3]; Homer: Greek Epic Poet, pseudonym?, "Iliad & Odyssey"; By this time the last Hurrian states had been extinguished by the invading Aryans, whose sheer numbers of immigrants must have been considerable. They succeeded over time in changing the Hurrian language(s) of the people in Kurdistan, as well as their genetic make-up. By the 3rd century BC, the Aryanization of the Kurdistan mountains was virtually complete.

849, 848, 845: Assyrian campaigns against Syrian alliance

842-c796: Hazael: King of Damascus; took Ammon, Moab, Edom in 814

842-815: Jehu: King of Israel, with Elisha killed Jehoram,Jezebel,Ahaziah,all Ahab's offspring & followers & destroyed Melqart temple in Samaria [2 Kings 9-12]

828-725: 23rd Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Pedubaste I 828-803, Osorkon IV 777-749, Peftjauwybast 740-725

814-800: Jehoahaz: King of Israel, son of Jehu [2 Kings 10:35;13:1-9]

814: Carthage: founded by Elissa & Pygmalion of Tyre, myth?

810-783: Adad-nerara III: Assyrian King, sacked Damascus in 796 [2 Kings 13:5]

800-500: Dharma-sutra period of Indian Sanskrit literature: "Upanishads"

800-784: Joash: King of Israel, sacked Jerusalem, raided Temple in 785 8th: High Priestess of Thebes, Apollo worshipped at Delphi, Spartan Laws of Lycurgus, Laws of Minos of Knossos; Babylonian 5 & 7 tone music scales; Egyptian fable: "Battle of Head & Belly"; Syria adopts Aramaic

798-769: Amaziah: King of Judah, regained Edom, defeated by Israel [2 Kings 14:7-22]

785-760: Argishti I: King of Urartu (Armenia), founded Erevan in 782

784-733: Uzziah: prince-regent then King of Judah, son of Amaziah [2 Kings 15:1-7, 2 Chr 26:1-3], Yahwist (J) source of Genesis-Numbers (Mosaic Law) written

784-748: Jeroboam II: son of Joash, last important ruler of Israel [2 Kings 14:23], Elowist (E) source of Genesis-Exodus (Mosaic Law), Hosea, Amos, Micah written

776-393ce: Olympic Games: every 4th year at Olympia, women excluded

775 Sep 6: solar eclipse recorded in China

772: Temple of Artemis at Ephesus begun, original burned in 356

770-221: Eastern Zhou (Chou) dynasty of China: Spring & Autumn period to 476, bronze casting perfected, "Quarter-Remainder Calendar" of 365.25 days/year [ssu-fen-li,Ch'un-ch'iu], 2nd period of literature: "Shih ching" (Book of Odes) of 1751-770, "Shu ching" (Book of Documents) history of 3000-630

763 Jun 15: solar eclipse recorded in Ashur, Assyria

753: Rome: founded by Romulus, son of Mars, brother of Remus, raised by she-wolf, myth?, year 1 in 10-month solar calendar (a.u.c.=anno urbis conditae)

747-734: Nabu-nasir: Babylonian King, astrology, "Babylonian Chronicle" begun

745-727: Tiglath-pileser III: Assyrian King, conquered Babylonia, dominant power, captured Damascus in 732, transformed Syria into Assyrian province...

c740-681: Isaiah was a Biblical prophet who lived in the land of Judah. Prophets such as Isaiah were said to have a special message from God. The message Isaiah was delivering mainly concerned the rebellious nature of God's chosen people Israel, as recorded in the Old Testament book of Isaiah.

733: Syracuse (Siracusa), Sicily: founded by Corinthian Greeks

730-700: Hesiod: Greek poet, 1st Greek lit. on origins of gods: "Theogony", also "Works & Days", "Shield of Heracles", names the 9 Muses: (Clio:history, Euterpe:music, Thalia:comedy, Melpomene:tragedy, Terpsichore:dance, Erato: elegy, Polyhymnia:lyric-poetry, Ourania: astronomy, Calliope:eloquence) Loeb

728-675-653: Deioces - Phraortes: Median Kings of Iran, at Ecbatana, myth?

727-698: Hezekiah: King of Judah, son of Ahaz, Siloam Inscription in Old Hebrew alphabet in Jerusalem water tunnel c705 [2 Kings 16:20;18-20,1 Chr 3:13,4:39...]

727-722: Shalmaneser V: Assyrian King, son of Tiglath-pileser III, captured Samaria & Israel in 722, expelled Jews, new nation of Samerina [2 Kings 17:3-6]

725-715: 24th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Shepsesre Tefnakht I 725-720, Wahkare Bakenranef 720-715

721-705: Sargon II: Assyrian King, recaptured Babylonia, Syria, Samaria

Assyrian Empire

New Assyrian Empire until 612 BC

721-710,703: Merodach-baladan II: Babylonian King, Chaldean, allied with Elam

715-672: Numa Pompilius: King of Rome, added Jan & Feb to Romulus' calendar

712-343: Late Kingdom in Egypt: The Nubians fall under the Assyrians invasion. The Greeks help re-establish order. A renaissance in the arts of the 25th Dynasty shows a return to the Old Kingdom style.

712-657: 25th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Shebaka 712-698, Shebitku 698-690, Taharqa 690-664, Tantamani 664-657

705-682: Sennacherib: Assyrian King, sacked Jerusalem in 701, Babylon in 689 7th: 1st Isaiah (1-39) written; Greek: Apollo/Dionysus cult, 1st Doric columns in Peloponnesus, 1st Ionic columns on Samos, Acropolis; Murabba'at Palimpsest oldest extant Hebrew papyrus; Aramaic common language of Middle East

690/687-642/638: Manassseh: King of Judah, sacrificed his son to Molech ... [2 Kings 21:2-7]

690-664: Pharaoh Taharqa: Ethiopian, aided Jerusalem in revolt against Assyria

685-645: Rusa II: King of Urartu (Armenia), castle Karmir-Blur, decline

685-652: Gyges: King of Lydia, founded Mermnad Dynasty till 546, electrum coin

683: Athens abolished hereditary kingship, instead Archons served 1 year term

680-669: Esarhaddon: Assyrian King, son of Sennacherib, defeated Taharka in Philistia in 679, conquered Nile Delta region in 671, Assyrian held till 649

677/676: The Abomination of Desolation prophecy referred to in Leviticus 26:14-33 commences during the reign of the evil Hebrew king Manasseh. King Manasseh was the first of many of the Hebrew kings who had attempted to lead the Jewish people away from the religion of Moses and, in it's place, replace it with local pagan cults. Manasseh allowed these pagan cults to erect altars inside the Temple of Solomon where idols were worshipped and sacrifices were offered to pagan gods. Among other abominations, Manasseh was also said to have allowed ritual prostitution to be practiced inside the Holy Temple.   Moses' prophecy quickly took effect when the Assyrians swept down from the north, conquered Jerusalem and King Manasseh himself was carried off in chains to Babylon. This was the beginning of the seven times era of subjugation foretold by Moses.  Referring back to the Leviticus 26 prophecy again we see that Moses said that this 'Abomination' and 'scattering among the Gentiles' time period would last for seven times. Seven times or seven years of 360 days in a year equals 2,520 'days' [means 2,520 years]

669-626: Ashurbanipal: Assyrian King, sacked Babylon in 648 after 4 year revolt, height of empire, golden age of divination, 22,000 clay tablet library

667-648: Shamash-shuma-ukin: Babylonian King, brother of Ashurbanipal

664-525: 26th Dynasty rulers in Egypt (Saite Period in Egypt): Psammetichus I (Psam-tik) 664-610, Psammetichus II 610-595, Apries 589-570, Amasis 570-526, Psammetichus III 526-525

658: Byzantium: founded by Greeks from Megara, renamed Constantinople in 330ce

655/522: 1st recorded sun measurements by gnomon, by Chinese [Ch'un-ch'iu]

c650-100: Iron Age in southern France

648 Apr 6: solar eclipse recorded by Floruit of Archilochus

638-609: Josiah: King of Judah, instituted reforms, Deuteronomy (2nd Mosaic Law) found in Temple in 621, Book of Kings written [1 Kings 13, 2 Kings 22-23, 2 Ch 34-35]

625-605: Nabopolassar: Babylonian King, founded Chaldean Dynasty (625-539)

625-585: Cyaxares: Median King of western Iran, drove out Scythian invaders

621: Draco of Athens: wrote "Draconian Laws", death for most offenses

616-509: Etruscans of Tuscany invaded & ruled Rome as Tarquin Kings

Etruria to 509 BC

614: Medes of western Iran sacked city of Ashur, Assyria

613: 1st recorded sighting of Halley's comet, by Chinese [Ch'un-ch'iu]

612: Ninevah destroyed by Chaldeans & Medes, end of Assyrian Empire (1363-612)

610-595: Pharaoh Psammetichus II or Necho II: regained Syro-Palestine & dethroned Jehoahaz of Judah & installed Jehoiakim as King [2 Kings 23]; attempted Nile to Red Sea canal; 1st recorded circumnavigation of Africa, by Phoenicians, took 3 years; defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II in 605 Battle of Carchemish on Euphrates

604-562: Nebuchadnezzar II: Babylonian King, Chaldean, son of Nabopolassar, in 598 dethroned Jehoiachin of Judah & installed Zedekiah who revolted with Eqyptian assistance in 590, in 586 conquered Jerusalem & destroyed Temple; Jews, Scrolls, Temple goods exiled to Babylon till Persian conquest of 538, Jeremiah fled to Egypt & died [2 Kings 25], in 573 conquered Tyre after 13 year siege, invaded Egypt in 568

602: Daniel prophesied a "seven-times" (Daniel 4:23) span from the year 602 BC. "Seven-times" is repeated three times in Daniel 4 which indicates that a hidden prophecy is contained here. Daniel 4:29 mentions "after twelve months" which calls our attention to the word 'month' or 'moonth' - and hints that the lunar (moon) calendar is in use for unsealing this prophecy. It states that "after twelve months" Nebuchadnezzar goes insane and "seven-times" are to pass over him.

A time is 360 years, a year of years. Seven times 360 is 2520 'lunar' years ... which is 2445 solar years from 602 BC (1 solar year = 1.03069 lunar years). The date for the fulfillment of the "seven-times" becomes 2445 - 602 +1 (year 0 of Christian Calendar) = 1844 AD.

To confirm 602 BC as the starting point of this prophecy, we start with 604 BC - the year that Nebuchadnezzar became king. Daniel 2:1 says that in the second year of his reign (603 BC), Nebuchadnezzar began to have dreams. No further dates are given until Daniel 4:29 already sited, where it reads "after twelve months" when Nebuchadnezzar goes insane and the "seven-times" are to pass over him. Thus the "twelve months" are from 603 BC to 602 BC.

6th cent.: Axis Era: zenith of human wisdom & achievement, Babylonians developed 19 year cycle lunisolar calendar (c.2hr/19yr deviation from solar), Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Mayan civilization in Mexico, oldest extant Latin, Fables of Aesop, theatre arts begun in Delphi, Age of 7 Wise Men of Greece: Thales, Pittacus, Bias, Solon, Cleobulus, Periander, Chilo; height of oracle at Delphi & its priestess, Athens built public libraries, Hecatompedon, Temple of Olympian Zeus; Shwe Dagon Pagoda of Burma, Temple of Apollo at Corinth, Temple of Ceres at Paestum, Romans began building with semicircle arched ceilings adopted from Etruscans, T. Priscus built 1st Roman stone bridge, Cloaca Maxima built to drain Roman Forum

600-559: Cambyses I: Persian King (eastern Iran), father of Cyrus II

600: Marseilles, France: founded by Greek colonists (Lacydon, Marsilea)

c590: Sappho of Lesbos: Greek poetess, feminine love cult

587: Lachish Letters: ostraca, classical Hebrew on 21 potsherds, AD 1935/38

586: Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon, conquers Jerusalem & destroys Temple: Jewish Exile

Babylonian Empire

Babylonian Empire circa 586 BC

585-550: Astyages: last Median King (western Iran), overthrown by Cyrus II

582-c390ce: Isthmian Games: on Isthmus of Corinth, athletic & musical

580: Heraion: Greek temple of Hera the Queen of Heaven on island of Samos

c575: Priestly (P) source of Genesis-Numbers (Mosaic Law) written in Babylon

562-560-556: Amel-Marduk - Nergal-shar-Usur: Babylonian Kings, Chaldeans

561: Solon: b.640, Athenian statesman, "Laws of Solon", repealed Draconian Law except for homicide; Loeb: "Parallel Lives, v1, Solon" by Plutarch (120ce)

560-546: Croesus: King of Lydia, defeated by Cyrus the Great at Sardis

c560: Deuteronomist (D) source of Joshua to Kings written in Babylon

559-529: Cyrus II the Great: founded Persian Achaemenid Empire, pony express, freedom of religion, conquered Armenia in 549, Lydia in 546, Babylon in 539; granted Jerusalem Temple rebuilding to Sheshbazzar & Zerubbabel in 538, Ez. 1:1ff in Hebrew, Ez. 6:3f in Babylonian Aramaic, work halted by Cambyses II

555-539: Nabonidus: Babylonian King, Chaldean, promoted moon-god Sin of Harran

552-543: Bel-shar-usur (Belshazzar): acting regent of Babylonia while father Nabonidus in Tema, Arabia (in exile? worshipping Arabian moon-god? ...)

547: Anaximander of Miletus: b.611, Greek philosopher, 1st Greek sundial?

546: Thales of Miletus: b.636, Greek philosopher, water is primary substance, 1st known accurate prediction of solar eclipse in Europe: 28 May 585

c540: Temple of Diana on Janiculan hill in Rome

538-167: 2nd period of Hebrew literature: Aramaisms, square script adopted

536: Cyrus II the Great of Persia issues 1st Edict to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem (according to the 1st chapter of the Book of Ezra)

535: Carthaginians & Etruscans defeated Greeks at sea off Corsica

c531: Lao-tzu: b.604?, 571?, pseudonym?, Li Er?, Chinese philosopher, "Tao Te Ching"

530: 2nd Isaiah written in Babylon by Deutero-Isaiah, proclaims Cyrus as Jewish Messiah because of his decree to rebuild Temple; Cyrus the Great conquers part of Punjab

529-522: Cambyses II: Persian Emperor, son of Cyrus II, conquered Egypt in 525

527: Mahavira Jina: Vardhamana, b.599?, Indian philosopher, founded Jainism

526: Anaximenes of Miletus: b.586, Greek philosopher, air is primary substance

525-404: 27th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Cambyses II 525-522, Darius I 521-486, Xerxes I 486-466, Artaxerxes I 465-424, Darius II 424-404

521-486: Darius I: Persian Emperor, founded Persepolis, extended empire to 20 satrapies (provinces), conquered India's Punjab in 517-509, Thrace in 512; 2nd Jerusalem Temple construction completed in 515 [Ez6]; Persepolis Tablets: Old Persian in 36-sign Cuneiform & Aramaic alphabets

519: Darius I of Persia issues 2nd Edict to rebuild Temple in Jerusalem (according to the 6th chapter of the Book of Ezra)

514: Carthage defeated the Spartan Dorieus' attempt to colonize Libyan coast

509-27: Roman Republic: founded when Tarquin Kings were expelled after "Rape of Lucretia", 2 consuls elected yearly, Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus

508: Cleisthenes: b.570?, introduces sweeping democratic reforms in Athens

507: unsuccessful attempt by Sparta to oust Cleisthenes & restore aristocracy; Pythagoras: b.582, Greek mathematician, numbers are primary substance

c505: Rome sacked by Lars Porsenna of Clusium

500-200: Dharmasastra (or smrti) period of Indian Sanskrit lit.: "Sutras"

500-300: Classical Greek: Attic Greek of Athens becomes standard Greek

Persian Empire circa 500 BC

Persian Empire circa 500 BC

c500: Susrata: Indian surgeon, performed cataract operations; Parmenides: Greek philosopher, founded Eleaticism at Elea, Italy: "motion & change are illusions, only immovable & immutable Being is real" 499-479: Greece's "Persian Wars": Persia failed to conquer Greece

500-100: Adena Culture in North America flourishes: The Adena culture was a conglomerate of many Indian communities that inhabited the Central and Southern regions of Ohio in the first millennium BC. The Adena people lived in villages and survived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants. Although the Adena culture survived for many centuries, much of what we know of them today is drawn from mounds.

498: Temple of Saturn in Rome

495-452: Alexander I: King of Macedon, succeeded by 5 sons

494: Plebeians (Plebs) revolt in Rome: tribunate formed with Concilium Plebis

490 Aug 12: Battle of Marathon: c.26 miles from Athens, Greeks defeated Persians

486-466: Xerxes I: Persian Emperor, halted Babylonian revolt & melted their golden Marduk god in 482, sacked Athens in 480, decline, assassinated

485-478: Gelon: Tyrant of Syracuse, defeated Carthaginians at Himera in 480

483: Heracleitus: b.544, Greek philosopher of Ephesus: "permanence is illusion & constant change is only reality"; coined "Logos" (Word) as 3-fold: order creator; order sustainer; rationality expressed as written language; Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama, b.563?, Indian philosopher, founded Buddhism

480-380: height of Greek drama at Athens

479: K'ung Fu-tzu: Kung Ch'iu, Confucius, b.551, Chinese philosopher, founded Confucianism, sayings recorded in "Lun-yu" (Analects), coined "Tao" (Way), Golden Rule: "What you do not like done to yourself, do not do to others"

478-412: Delian League: formed by Athens against Persians, rebuilt city walls

474: Carthaginians defeated Etruscans at sea off Cumae

475-427: Archidamus II: Spartan King, Helot Revolt: 465-461, earthquake: 464 c468: Aristides the Just: b.530?, Athenian statesman & general; (Loeb)

466: Benghazi, Libya: founded as capital of Cyrenaica

465-424-404: Artaxerxes I - Xerxes II - Darius II: Persian Emperors

464: democracy in Syracuse

462-429: Pericles: b.500?, Athenian democratic leader, disciple of Anaxagoras, in 460 began Peloponnesian Wars with Sparta (till 404) which led to decline, captured Memphis, Egypt (460-454); in 457 built "Long Walls", beginning of 28-year golden age; in 451 "5-year truce" with Sparta; in 448 Treaty of Callias brought Persian support against Sparta; in 447 construction began of Classical Temples on Acropolis; in 446 "30-year truce" with Sparta; in

c460-c375: Hippocrates, Greek Physician, of Cos, is traditionally called the 'Father of Medicine'. He maintained that disease had only natural causes, and took the treatment of disease out of the hands of religion. His theories of medicine are summed up in the 'Corpus Hippocratium', a collection of 70 works, the oldest surviving complete medical books. The 'Hippocratic Oath' named after him, gave the medical profession a sense of duty which it never lost.

458: Cincinnatus: named dictator of Rome by Senate to defend city v. Aequians, when done quit & returned to farming, model for U.S. Revolutionary troops

457: 3rd Edict for rebuilding Temple in Jerusalem given by the Persian Artaxerxes I (7th year of his reign). Start of two thousand and three hundred 'days' [means 2,300 years] of occupation by the 'gentiles' and 70 'weeks' [means 490 years] until Messiah appears [Jesus the 'Christ'] (according to the 7th chapter of the book of Ezra). [Each day, according to the text of the Holy Book, is a year. For in the Bible it is said: "The day of the Lord is one year."  Therefore, four hundred and ninety days are four hundred and ninety years]

456: Aeschylus: b.525, Greek "Father of Tragedy", introduced second actor, scenery & costumes to Athenian theatre, wrote: Suppliant Maidens; Persians; Prometheus; 7 Against Thebes; Agamemnon; Libation Bearers; Eumenides

453-221: "Warring States" period of China: Zhou/Jin/Wei/Han/Zhao/Chu/Yan/Qi, steel sword (Ch'ang-sha,1976), Yu Hoi discovers precession of the equinoxes

451: 3 Roman Senators sent to Athens to study "Laws of Solon" (561), in 450 Decemvirs codified Roman Law as "XII Tables"; Loeb:Remains of Old Latin,v3

c450: Torah (Mosaic Law): compiled from E,J,P,D sources in Babylon; Diagoras of Melos: first Greek Atheist?, "Ho Atheos" (The Atheist); Celts (La Tene culture, Druids) invaded British Isles; Papyrus Elephantine: in Aramaic, Jewish military colony in Egypt on Nile island of Yeb, Yahu (YHW) god temple (destroyed in 410), also Eshem god & Anath goddess, also Bethel (BYT'L) & Herem gods, ... AD 1907/8 ; Celtic migrations in Southern France

444: 4th Edict by Artaxerxes I of Persia to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem (according to the 2nd chapter of the book of Nehemiah)

438: Pindar: b.518, Greek lyric poet, victory odes ... (Loeb Classics); Mo-tzu: Mo Ti, b.479?, Chinese philosopher, founded Moism: Universal Love

432 mathematician Meton adopted 19-year cycle lunisolar calendar; on 3 Aug 431 solar eclipse recorded [Thucydides 2.28.2]; in 430-427 plague killed c. 1/3

431: Temple of Apollo in Rome

430: Book of Ruth written

428: Samaritans built temple at Mount Gerizim in Samaria

425: Herodotus: b.485?, Greek "Father of History"; (Loeb Classics: 4 volumes)

412: Treaty of Miletus: Persia switches support to Sparta against Athens

411: oligarchy in Athens, democracy restored in 410

410: Protagoras: b.480, Greek philosopher, Sophist Agnostic banned from Athens, "Man is the measure of all things", "truth is subjective"

409: Rhodes built by Greek architect Hippodamus of Miletus

406: Euripides: b.480, Greek Dramatist: Cyclops, Orestes, Electra; (Loeb:4v); Sophocles: b.495, Greek Dramatist, introduced third actor & expanded chorus from 12 to 15 in Athenian theatre, wrote: Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone, Ajax, Electra, Trachiniae, Philoctetes

405-367: Dionysius the Elder: Tyrant of Syracuse, major power of Greek Italy, tried to drive Carthaginians from Sicily in 3 wars of 398-392, 382-375, 368

404-359: Artaxerxes II: Persian Emperor, plagued by revolts, Egypt etc.

404: Sparta defeats Athens, "Long Walls" destroyed, "30 Tyrants" rule till 403

404-399: 28th Dynasty ruler in Egypt: Amyrtaios 404-399

403: Tzu-ssu: b.482, Chinese philosopher, wrote: "The Central Harmony"

400: Thucydides: b.460?, Greek historian: "History Peloponnesian War"; Loeb:4v; Tsou Yen: Chinese philosopher, founded Naturalists, 5 elements theory; Chuang-tzu: chapters 1-7 written by Chuang Chou, Chinese Philosophy; Ch'un-ch'iu: "Spring & Autumn Annals", 722-481 chronicle of Lu, China; Li-chi: "Book of Rites" by Tseng Tzu; lost "Book of Music" by Yueh ching; Nehemiah comes from Babylon to aid Jerusalem Temple rebuilding [Neh. 1-6], Ezra the Scribe brings Torah (Mosaic Law) to Jerusalem from Babylon [Neh. 8]

399: Socrates: b.470?, Greek Philosopher, condemned to death by hemlock

399-380: 29th Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Nepherites I 399-393, Psammuthis 393, Hakoris 393-380, Nepherites II 380

395-387: Corinthian War: Corinth & Athens versus Sparta, involved Persians

394-391: "Long Walls" rebuilt at Athens

393-370: Amyntas III: King of Macedon, father of Philip II (359-336)

390: Gauls from northern Italy under Brennus sacked Rome: "Vae victis"

385: Aristophanes: Athenian dramatist: "Archarnians; Knights; Clouds; Wasps; Peace; Birds; Frogs; Lysistrata; Thesmophoriazusae; Ecclesiazusae; Plutus"

380-343: 30th Dynasty rulers in Egypt, (The 30th Dynasty was the last of the Egyptian-born Pharaohs): Nectanebo I 380-362, Teos 365-360, Nectanebo II 360-343

380: Lysias: b.459, Greek orator, wrote: "Oration 1", "Oration 32"

377: City walls of Rome built

375-335: Papyrus Samarian: in Aramaic, fragments of legal documents

371: Battle of Leuctra: Sparta, defeated by Thebes, begins decline in power

367-344: Dionysius II the Younger: Tyrant of Syracuse, disciple of Dion (354)

367: Persians standardize 19-year cycle lunisolar calendar

366: Temple of Concordia in Rome

c360: Yang Zhu: Yang Chu, b.440, Chinese philosopher, accused of hedonism

359-336: Philip II: b.383, King of Macedon, dominant Greek power, assassinated

359-338: Artaxerses III of Persia: Jews revolt 350; Egypt recap. 343; assassinated.

356: China begins building Great Wall against Huns

355: Xenophon: b.434, Greek soldier & historian

354: Dion of Syracuse: b.409?, Platonic philosopher & statesman, assassinated

354: Tomb of Halicarnassus: in Asia Minor, built for King Mausolus

350: Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah, Jonah, Job: written in Jerusalem

350: Mahabharata: Indian epic (inc. Bhagavad Gita) recounts events 1400-800 bce; Heraclides: disciple of Plato, taught heliocentric system; Plato: b.430?, disciple of Socrates, founded "Academy" (School of Philosophy) of Athens in 347, ideas are primary substance

343-332: 2nd Persion Period of Egypt (also known as the The 31st Dynasty) and was added after Manetho created his list of kings, 31st Dynasty rulers in Egypt: Ochus (Artaxerxes III) 343-338, Arses 338-336, Darius III Codomannus 335-332

343-341: 1st Samnite (central Italy) War of Rome

340-338: Latin Wars: Rome defeated rebellious central Italian cities

340: Praxagoras of Cos discovered difference between arteries & veins; Buddhism splits: Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) & Hinayana (Lesser Vehicle)

339: Publilian Laws of Rome: reform led by Quintus Publilius Philo

338-336/335-330: Arses - Darius III: Persian Emperors, both assassinated

338: Battle of Chaeronea: Macedonians conquer Athens, control Greece; Isocrates: b.436, Athenian orator, advocated Pan-Hellenism; first Roman coins

336-323 Jun 10: Alexander the Great of Macedon: b.356, son of Zeus & a virgin, disciple of Aristotle, in 334-331 defeated Darius III at Granicus, Issus & Gaugamela; in 332 conquered Egypt & founded city of Alexandria (center of Hellenism); in 331 conquered Babylon & declared "Son of God" at oracle of Amun in Siwa, Egypt; in 330 sacked Persepolis; in 327 invaded India to the Indus river but generals turned back; founded Alexandrian Empire

Alexanderian/Macedonian Empire

Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire circa 327 BC

330: Greek explorer Pytheas of Marsilea (Marseilles) reached Britain

326-304: 2nd Samnite (central Italy) War of Rome

325: Earliest extant Greek papyrus: "Persae of Timotheus of Miletus"; Loeb:3v

323-30: Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt: This period is confusing due to all of the co-regencies. Scholars are not always in agreement on the order of reigns and, in some case, the reigns themselves, from Ptolemy VI through Ptolemy XI. In any event, Egypt's authority and wealth was intact until the death of Cleopatra, at which time, Egypt was overpowered by Rome.

323-285: Ptolemy I Soter I: satrap of Egypt, disciple of Aristotle, moved remaining Jews of Judea to Alexandria & founded Museum in 323, Library in 307, ruled Syria 319-314, in 305 named Soter (Savior), founds Ptolemaic Empire of Egypt

323-322: Lamian War: unsuccessful revolt of Athens against Macedonian rule

323: Diogenes the Cynic: (cyon=dog), b.412?, lived in a barrel in Athens ... 322-297: Chandragupta: founded Mauryan Empire of India, Jain?, expelled Greeks & in 305 defeated Seleucus of Syria, extended empire into Afghanistan

maurya.gif (5876 bytes)

Indian Mauryan Empire from 272 to 231 BC

322: Aristotle: b.384, disciple of Plato, logic is primary substance, in 335 founded Lyceum (Peripatetic Philosophy School) in Athens; Demosthenes: b.384, Greek orator, "Philippics", etc.

317-284: Ardvates: satrap of Armenia, founded dynasty which lasted till 211

315-312: 4 years war: Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander, Lysimachus v. Antigonus

314-301: Antigonus I Cyclops (1-eyed): founded Antigonid Empire of Macedon

311-281: Seleucus I Nicator (Victor): founded Seleucid Empire of Syria & capital Antioch, killed Antigonus I & Lysimachus (King of Thrace, 305-281)

305-297: Cassander: Antigonid King of Macedon, founded Thessalonica in 315

305: Meng-tzu: Mencius, b.390?, Chinese Confucian philosopher, "Book of Mencius"

300-550ce: Koine (Common) Greek of Alexandria becomes standard Greek

300: Atetello at Teotihuacan: Mexican sun temple; Ramayana: Indian epic, life of Rama, the ideal man & king; Euclid: Greek Mathematician, "Elements"; (Loeb Classics with Thales); Hsiao ching: "Book of Filial Piety"; Chinese Confucian philosophy

298-290: 3rd Samnite War of Rome: Roman control of central & southern Italy

297-273: Bindusara: King of Mauryan Empire of India, conquered southern India

294-288: Demetrius I: Antigonid King, surrendered to Seleucus in 285

293: First Roman sundial [Pliny (79ce): Natural History 7.213]

292: Menander: b.342?, Greek dramatist, wrote "Sententiae"; (Loeb:3v)

287: Lex Hortensia: Roman Law reform by Quintus Hortensius; Theophrastus: b.372, Greek Peripatetic philosopher; (Loeb:5v)

282-246: Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Sister-loving): married sister, controlled Egypt/Judea/Samaria/Galilee, Torah (Mosaic Law) Greek translation (Septuagint) is published in Alexandria, original no longer extant; Pharos lighthouse; defeated Antiochus I in 1st Syrian War of 276-272; defeated by Antiochus II & Antigonus II in 2nd Syrian War of 260-253

281-261: Antiochus I Soter (Savior): Seleucid King of Syria

279-276: Gauls invaded Macedon

276-239: Antigonus II Gonatas: Antigonid King, married Antiochus' sister

275: End of history of city of Babylon the Great; Manetho: Egyptian High Priest wrote "History of Egypt" in Greek; (Loeb); Colossus of Rhodes: bronze Helios sun god, destroyed by earthquake in 224; Chuang-tzu: b.350, Chinese Taoist philosopher (tzu means Master); Appius Claudius: Roman Censor, Appian Aqueduct, Via Appia, letter "G"

273-232: Asoka the Great: Buddhist King of Mauryan Empire, united India in "Unity of Diversity", erected 40ft. columns inscribed with "Laws of Right Conduct & Nonviolence" picked up later by Thoreau, Gandhi, Martin Luther King

270: Epicurus: b.341, Greek philosopher wrote: "Kuriai Doxai" (Prin. Doctrine)

268: Denarius: first mint of this Roman silver coin

264-241: 1st Punic War: Rome versus Carthage, Rome conquered Sicily

264: Roman public gladiator combats begin

c262: Zeno of Citium: b.336, founded Greek Stoic philosophy

261-246: Antiochus II Theos (God): Seleucid King, married Ptolemy 2's daughter

260: Theocritus: b.300, Greek pastoral poet, wrote 31 short poems

250: Ecclesiastes: written in Hebrew; Synagogues: places to study Torah (Mosaic Law) appear; Arcesilaus founded Second Academy of Athens; Epistle of Jeremiah: Greek fragments found at Qumran Cave 7 (Septuagint); Apollonius Rhodius: Greek epic writer, wrote: "Argonautica"; Apollonius of Perga: Greek Mathematician, "Parabola, Hyperbola, Ellipse"

247-224ce: Parthian Empire (neo-Persian): founded in modern NE Iran by Arsaces

246-222: Ptolemy III Euergeter I (Benefactor) ruled Egypt: gained control of E.Mediterranean in 3rd Syrian War of 246-241, ruled Egypt/Judea/Samaria/Galilee, attempted Egyptian calendar reform to 365.25 days in 238 but was rejected

246-225: Seleucus II Callinicus (Glorious in victory): lost Parthia/Asia Minor

240: Callimachus: b.305, Greek epigrammist, wrote: Aetia; Iambics; Hymns; Hecale

238: Rome captured Sardinia then Corsica from Carthage

235: Xunzi: Hsun-tzu, b.320, Chinese philosopher, opposed Confucianism

233: Sun-tzu (tzu means Master): Chinese philosopher, wrote "The Art of War"; Han-fei-tzu: b.280?, Chinese philos., founded Legalists, cf. Machiavelli

227-221-179-168: Antigonus III Doson - Philip V - Perseus: Antigonid Kings of Macedon, attacked by Rome for siding with Carthage in 1st Macedonian War of 214-205, defeated by Rome in 2nd Macedonian War of 200-196, Athens under Roman rule, after 3rd Macedonian War of 171-168 split into 4 republics

225-223: Seleucus III Soter (Savior): Seleucid King of Syria

225: Quintus Fabius Pictor: first Roman historian

223-187: Antiochus III the Great: Seleucid King, ruled Jud/Sam/Gal till 217, defeated by Ptolemy IV in 4th Syrian War of 221-217, Jud/Sam/Gal under Ptol- emaic rule 217-198, took Armenia in 211, defeated Ptolemy V in 5th Syrian War of 201-195, regained Jud/Sam/Gal in 198, extreme missionary hellenism

Go to Top

222-205: Ptolemy IV Philopator (Father-loving) ruled Egypt: decline of empire began

221-207: Qin (Ch'in) dynasty of China: Cheng (Qin Shi Huangdi, Ch'in Shih- huang-ti) defeated "Warring States", ordered "Burning of the Books" in 213

220: Flaminian Way: road between Rome & Rimini

Carthaginian Empire around 220 BC

218-201: 2nd Punic War: Rome v. Carthage (Hannibal leads Carthaginian army across Provence and the Alps into Italy; 212: Rome took Syracuse, 206: Spain

212: Archimedes: b.287, Greek mathematician, buoyancy, screw, lever

205-180: Ptolemy V Epiphanes (God-manifest) ruled Egypt: rapid decline of empire

202-9ce: Western Han dynasty of China: founder Liu Bang (Kao-tzu) at Chang-an, Huang Ti Nei Ching on medicine, Shen Nung Pen Ts'ao Ching on pharmacology

200-1AD: early Torah (Law) Sages: Antigonus of Sochoh, Jose ben Johanan of Jeru- salem, Jose ben Joezer of Zereda in Samaria, Joshua ben Perahiah & Nittai of Arbel in Galilee, Simeon ben Shetah, Judah ben Tabbai, Shemiah, Abtalion

200-400AD: Hopewell culture of North America flourishes. There are many aspects of the Hopewell people that have set them apart from other Native Americans in different areas of the North American continent. Rather than a single society or people, the Hopewell might best be thought of as a system of interaction among a number of different cultures in the Eastern Woodlands of North America. This system of interaction peaked 200 BC to 400 AD. They were similar to Northern Woodlands and Great Lakes region Indians in that they were very powerful and influential over their area.

200-46: Roman calendar in theory adjusted every year by the Pontifices (High Priests) so that annual sacrifices would occur in the same seasons from year to year, but in practice the calendar diverged widely from true solar year

200-100: Early Latin literature: Livius Andronicus translated Odyssey ...

200: Height of Nok culture in Africa; Book of Esther written in Hebrew in Susa, Persia; 4QSam(b): Hebrew 1 Samuel fragments from Qumran Cave 4, LXX text-type; 4QDt(q): Hebrew Song of Moses frags. from Qumran Cave 4, LXX text-type; Targums: begun, paraphrases of Torah (Mosaic Law) into W. Syrian Aramaic; Tobit: 3 Aramaic & 1 Hebrew mss. frags. found Qumran Cave 4 (Septuagint); Li Szu: wrote San ts'ang: Chinese dictionary of 3,300 symbols; Ma-wang-tui silks: oldest & complete Tao Te Ching (Taoism), ...; 1973

190-159: Artashes I: Armenian King, founded Artaxiad dynasty

195: Eratosthenes: b.275, Greek scientist, calculated earth's circumference & tilt

190 Mar 14: solar eclipse in Rome

189: Artaxias (Artashes) declared himself King of Greater Armenia and founded a new dynasty. Artaxias expanded his territory by defining the borders of his land and unifying the Armenian people.

187-175: Seleucus IV Philopator (Father-loving): Seleucid King of Syria

185: Mauryan dynasty ends, Hinduism restored, Jains & Buddhists persecuted

184: Plautus: b.255?, Roman playwright, "Early Latin"

182: Hannibal: b.247, Carthaginian general, crossed the Alps with elephants

180-164/163-145: Ptolemy VI Philometor (Mother-loving) ruled Egypt: rapid decline of empire

c180: Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach (Vg: Ecclesiasticus): written in Hebrew in Jerusalem, Hebrew manuscripts found at Masada & Qumran Cave 2 (Septuagint); Aristophanes of Byzantium: Alexandrian librarian, invented vowel accents

179: Pons Aemilius: oldest extant stone bridge in Rome

175-164: Antiochus IV Epiphanes (God-manifest): Seleucid King, persecuted Jews, in 168 plundered & desecrated Jerusalem Temple & erected Zeus altar, in December 167 abolished Temple worship, forced Jews to eat pork

175: Jerusalem High Priest Jason built gymnasium for Greek athletic games; Papyrus Rylands 458: R957, Greek Deuteronomy fragments, c.20v from 23-28

171-138: Mithradates I: Parthian King, controlled all of Persian Plateau

170-163/145-116: Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II rules Egypt

169: Ennius the Poet: b.239, "Father of Latin Literature"

168 Jun 21: lunar eclipse in Rome

166-160: Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple: Judean response to Antiochus IV, priest Mattathias founded  Hasmonaean (Maccabean=Hammerer) Kingdom of Judea (164-63)

Hasmonaean Kingdom of Israel circa 165 BC

165: Daniel: written in Jerusalem, c. 1/2 Aramaic, some basis in past: 280-180

164 Dec: Jerusalem Temple rededicated by Judah the Maccabee (Hammer) [Hanukkah]

164-162: Antiochus V Eupator (Born-of-noble-father): Seleucid King, assassinated.

162-150: Demetrius I Soter (Savior): Seleucid King of Syria

160-144: Jonathan Maccabee: High Priest & King of Jerusalem, assassinated

159: Terence: b.185?, Libyan brought to Rome as a slave, wrote comic dramas: Andria, Hecyra, Heauton timorumenos, Eunuchus, Phormio, Adelphi

153 Jan 1: made 1st day of Roman calendar year (instead of March 15)

150-145: Alexander Balas: King of Syria, usurper supported by Rome

c150: Judith: original written in Hebrew, ironic moralist novel (Septuagint); Psalms 151-155 (Peshitta), LXX: Ps 151, Hebrew: Qumran:11QPs(a): 151,154,155; Pausanias: Greek geographer & historian; (Loeb Classics: 5v); Papyrus Nash: Decalogue (Ex20) & Shema (Dt5) in Hebrew, 1949; Papyrus R819: Greek Deuteronomy 11:4

149-146: 3rd Punic War: Romans killed c.450,000 in brutal sack of Carthage

149-148: 4th Macedonian War: Rome crushed revolt of Andriscus, Macedon annexed

149: Cato the Elder: b.234, Roman Chief Jurist, advocated destruction of Carthage: "delenda est Carthago", wrote: "de Agri Cultura"

147-139: Viriatus of Lusitania (Portugal) rebelled against Rome, assassinated

146: Greece under Roman rule

145: Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator rules Egypt

145-142: Antiochus VI Epiphanes Dionysus (Dionysus Manifest): Seleucid King

144-135: Simon Maccabee: Ethnarch & High Priest of Jerusalem, expelled Syrians, annexed Jaffa, assassinated

142-129: Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans

142-138: Demetrius II Nicator (Victor): Seleucid King of Syria

141-87: Wudi (Wu-ti): Chinese Emperor, Confucianism state ideology, silk road

139: Liu An wrote "Huai-nan-tzu" encylopedia of Chinese philosophy

138-129: Antiochus VII Sidetes (of Side): Seleucid King of Syria

135-104: John Hyrcanus I: Ethnarch & High Priest of Jerusalem, "Age of Expansion", annexed Trans-Jordan, Samaria, Galilee, Idumea. Forced Idumeans to convert to Judaism, hired non-Jewish mercenaries, etc., Pharisees [134-132: 1st Servile War: Eunus led slave revolt in Sicily, c.20,000 crucified

134: Stellar Nova recorded in Scorpio by Chinese, also sighted by Hipparchus (c125)

133: Asia Minor (modern Turkey) annexed by Rome

132: Ecclesiasticus: (see 180) translated into Greek by grandson (Septuagint)

130: 1 Maccabees: Greek translation of lost Hebrew original (Septuagint); Pergamum killed in Rome after attempting Utopian uprising (Sun-city)

129-63: Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy

128-124-87: Artabanus I - Mithradates II: Parthian Kings, control Mesopotamia

125-96: Antiochus VIII Grypus (Hook-nosed): Seleucid King, assassinated

c125: Additions to Greek Daniel: Prayer of Azariah (after Dan 3:23) (Septuagint); Hipparchus: Greek Astronomer, calc. year length to 7 min. (365.25-1/300); 1QIsa(a): full Hebrew "Isaiah Scroll" from Qumran Cave 1, MT text-type

124: The Yarlung Dynasty in Tibet is established

122: the Celts were defeated by the Romans; Aix-En-Provence fort established in France

120-63: Mithradates VI Eupator: b.133, King of Pontus (Asia Minor)

c120: 2 Maccabees: Greek based on earlier lost Greek original (Septuagint); Polybius: b.203?, Greek historian; (Loeb Classics: 6v); Transalpine Gaul (France) defined

118: Narbonne colony founded in France

116-107/88-80: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II rule Egypt: Roman influence in region

114: Zhang Qian: (Chang Ch'ien), Chinese explorer, toured India-Parthia-Greece

112-101: Marius & Sulla of Rome defeated King Jugurtha of Numidia, Africa

107-88: Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I: displaced Ptolemy IX, then overthrown

107, 104-100: Gaius Marius: consul of Rome, national hero

105: 1st College of Technology in Alexandria, founded by mathematician Heron

104: Judah Aristobulus I: High Priest & King of Jerusalem, was a brute ...

103-76: Alexander Jannaeus: High Priest & King of Jerusalem, was cruel ...

102-99: 2nd Servile War: second slave revolt in Sicily against Rome

100-0: Classical Latin literature: such as Cicero (43)

100: Bantu people introduce iron working into the area south of the Sudan; Ossuaries (stone bone boxes) with Greek inscriptions appear in Jerusalem, tomb of Goliath family linked to Temple Priesthood, inscriptions in Greek; most of the Jewish Scriptures available in Greek translations; Additions to Greek Daniel: c.13: Bel & Dragon c.14: Susanna (Septuagint); Enoch: 8 Aramaic manuscripts found at Qumran Cave 4 (Ethiopic Bible); Jubilees: 10 Hebrew manuscripts at Qumran Caves 1,2,4 (Ethiopic Bible); Papyrus R801: Greek Leviticus 26:2-16 found at Qumran Cave 4; Papyrus R805: Greek Exodus 28:4-7 found at Qumran Cave 7; Wisdom (of Solomon); 1 Esdras (LXX=Esdras A, Vg=Esdrae III); 1 Baruch; Prayer of Manasseh (cf. 2 Chr 33:1-19); all written in Greek (Septuagint); "Letter of Aristeas": describes Septuagint (282-246) translation of Torah by 72 Jerusalem Temple delegates, 6 from each of the 12 tribes, in 72 days, for Library of Alexandria, etc.; myth?

96-95: Antiochus IX, Seleucus VI: Seleucid Kings of Syria, assassinated

95-83: Antiochus X Eusebus (Pious): Seleucid King of Syria

95-56: Tigran II the Great: Armenian King, conquered Mesop. & Syria till 69

90-88: Social War: Italian revolt against Rome, Italians granted citzenship

90: Vitruvius: Roman architect & engineer, wrote: "de Architectura"; Loeb:2v; Sima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch'ien): b.145, Chinese historian: "Shiju" (Shih Chi)

88-84: 1st Mithradatic War: Sulla defeated Mithradates of Pontus (Asia Minor)

88-87: Civil War in Rome: Sulla took control

87-84: Cinna & Marius seized control of Rome when Sulla in Pontus, purges ...

86: Sulla sacked Athens for revolting during 1st Mithradatic War

83: Roman Temple of Jupiter burned, original Roman Sibylline (Crone Prophetess) Oracles destroyed, temple rebuilt in 76, new oracles written

83-78: Sulla regained control of Rome, ruled as "Dictator for Life", purges...

83-81: 2nd Mithradatic War: Sulla continued attack after false peace treaty

82: Alexander Polyhistor of Miletus wrote a history of the Jews in Greek

81-80: Cleopatra Berenice rules Egypt

80: Ptolemy XI Alexander II rules Egypt: appointed by Roman leader Sulla; married Cleopatra Berenice and then murdered her, he was in turn murdered by a mob

80-58/55-51: Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos ruled Egypt: hated, expelled, restored by Gabinius

80-72: Roman general Sertorius lead Spanish revolt, crushed by Pompey

78: Esther: translated into Greek in Jerusalem (Septuagint)

76-67: Salome Alexandra: Queen of Jerusalem, last quasi-independent ruler

75-67: Hyrcanus II: High Priest of Jerusalem, son of Salome Alexandra

c75: Papyrus Fouad 266: R847-8, Greek Dt. 11, 17-33 frag.; square Hebrew Tetragram

74-63: 3rd Mithradatic War: Romans completed Pontus conquest, annexed to Asia

73-71: 3rd Servile War: Spartacus' slave revolt; crushed by Crassus & Pompey

70: Crassus & Pompey: consuls of Rome

67-63: Aristobulus II: High Priest & King of Jerusalem, Hyrcanus II's brother

64-63: Conspiracy of Catiline in Rome against Cicero's consulship

64: Pompey ended Seleucid Empire, last King: Antiochus XIII Asiaticus (69-64)?

63: Julius Caesar elected Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest) by Roman Senate; Roman General Pompey conquers Jerusalem, selected Hyrcanus II over Aristobulus II

63-41: Hyrcanus II: back as High Priest in alliance with Antipater the Idumean

62: Florence, Italy founded

60-53: "First Roman Triumvirate": Caesar-Pompey-Crassus

58-55: Berenice IV rules Egypt

58-50: Caesar officially conquers Gaul, although the surrender of Vercingétorix still left the majority of the war-like Gaullish tribes still fighting, against the Romans and against each other; Julius Caesar names Britannia (Great Britain)

57-55: Gabinius: Roman proconsul of Syria, split Hasmonean Kingdom (164-63) into Galilee, Samaria & Judea with 5 districts of "synhedria" (G4892: sunedrion:Sanhedrin) at Jerusalem, Jericho, Amathus, Sepphoris & ?

56-34: Artavazd II: Armenian King, playwright, murdered by Antony & Cleopatra

55-53: Crassus toured Eastern Empire, plundered Jerusalem Temple

c55: Lucretius: b.99?, Roman poet & philosopher: "de Rerum Natura"; (Loeb)

54: erection of new (Julian) forum in Rome; Gaius Valerius Catullus: b.84?, Roman lyric poet, wrote "Carmina"; (Loeb)

53 May: Roman Triumvir Crassus killed during failed invasion of Parthia

51-47: Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII rule Egypt: Ptolemy XIII deposed his sister Queen Cleopatra VII in 49

c50: Psalms of Solomon: Hebrew written in Jerusalem (Septuagint); Additions to Greek Esther (Septuagint); Mahayana (Greater Vehicle) Sutras of Buddhism written in India; Lohsia Hung: Chinese astronomer, 1st armillary sphere

49: Roman Senate, led by Pompey, ordered Caesar to disband his armies in Gaul; Caesar "crossed the Rubicon" river & invaded Italy; Pompey, defeated by Caesar at Brundisium, fled to Greece

48 Jun-Sep: Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus Greece, pursued Pompey to Egypt where Pompey murdered, established mistress Cleopatra VII as Queen of Egypt

48-44 Mar 15: Gaius Julius Caesar: b.102, founded Julio-Claudian dynasty, wrote "Bellum Gallicum" (Gallic War) in 51, "Bellum civile" (Civil War) in 47; in 47 Aug defeated Pontic army at Zela, Asia Minor; "Veni, vidi, vici"; in 46 campaigned in North Africa which became Roman province, decreed "Julian Calendar" of 365.25 days with leap year (initial set to solar), ordered suicide of opponent Roman Chief Jurist Cato the Younger, campaigned against remnant Pompeian forces in Spain; in 44 declared "Dictator for Life" by Senate, on March 15 "Ides of March" assassinated by Cassius, Casca, Brutus, etc., "Et tu Brute?", civil war

47-44: Cleopatra & Ptolemy XIV rule Egypt: Caesar ordered marriage of sister Cleopatra who killed him

47-40: Phasael: governor of Jerusalem, elder son of Antipater the Idumean; Herod: governor of Galilee, younger son of Antipater the Idumean, earned a reputation of being tough on Jews, killed Hezekiah without a trial ...

47: Library of Ptolemy I Soter I in Alexandria destroyed by fire

44-30: Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XV Cesarion rule Egypt

43-31: Second Triumvirate (Anthony, Lepidus and Octavian) and Civil War: Ptolemy XV Caesarion (Little-Caesar): Caesar's son by Cleopatra, assasination.

43: Sunspots: 1st recorded by Chinese [Ch'ien Han Shu]; Roman Senate declared war on Mark Antony, Octavian won 2 battles at Mutina then 2nd Triumvirs till 32: Mark Antony took East, Octavian took Italy, Marcus Lepidus took Gaul, all enemies murdered including Cicero: b.106, Roman lawyer, orator & politician, 'Classical Latin'; (Loeb Classics: 28v)

42: Caesar declared a god by Roman Senate

40: Mark Antony married Octavian's sister Octavia to seal Perugia treaty; Parthia invaded Syria, Herod escaped to Rome, Phasael committed suicide

40-37: Mattathias Antigonus: Hasmonean High Priest & King of Jerusalem

39-36: Pirate Sextus Pompey ruled Sicily/Sardinia/Corsica; defeated by Agrippa

39: Herod appointed King of Judea in Rome by Mark Antony & Octavian Augustus

38: Romans recaptured Syria (E. Mediterranean) from Parthians (neo-Persians)

37-4: King Herod the Great of Judea (Roman Vassal): b.73?, captured Jerusalem in 37 July with help of Roman Legions, killed Antigonus & all heirs (end of Hasmonean Dynasty), Octavian said "One would rather be Herod's swine than his son", posed as a champion of hellenic culture, purely Greek inscriptions used on coins & weights, Greek Theatre & Hippodrome; in 19 began rebuilding Jerusalem Temple including Roman Eagle Gate; in 10 inaugurated new city of Caesarea; in 9 invaded Nabataea (Arabia); in 6 executed Zealots who attempted to remove Roman Eagle Gate; 6-4 executed infants in "Massacre of the Innocents", myth? [Mt 2]

36: Mark Antony married Cleopatra VII Queen of Egypt, divorced Octavia in 32

35-33: Octavian conquered Illyria (Dalmatian coast)

35: Sallust: b.86, Roman historian & politician

32: Octavian had Roman Senate declare war on Mark Antony

31-14 AD: Octavian Augustus: b.63, 1st Roman Emperor, son of Apollo & a virgin, in 31Sep2 defeated, with General Agrippa (63-12), fleet of Antony & Cleopatra at Actium; in 30 annexed Egypt as Roman province, Antony & Cleopatra commit suicide; in 29 dedicated Temple of Divus Julius (Divine Julius); in 28 Oct 9 dedicated Temple of Apollo; in 27 Jan 13-16 honored by Senate as Imperator Caesar Augustus; Pantheon built by Agrippa to honor "all gods" of the empire; Planetary Week of Saturn-Sun-Moon-Mars-Mercury-Jupiter-Venus; in 22-19 toured East, built Temple of Dendur on Nile; in 19 Pont du Gard aqueduct across Gard river in France; in 18 Leges Juliae moral laws, punished childless & adulterers; in 15 Agrippa (also Herod's personal friend) visited Jerusalem Temple with sacrifices; in 12 elected Pontifex Maximus (Highest Priest) by Senate, dedicated Temple of Vesta (maintained by Vestal Virgins); in 2 dedicated Temple of Mars Ultor (Avenger Wargod) first erected in 20

27: Marcus Terentius Varro: b.116, Roman scholar: de Lingua Latina ..; Loeb:2v

25: 3 Maccabees (Ptolemaica): written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint); Cornelius Nepos: b.100?, Roman historian

22: Gallia Transalpina in France renamed Narbonensis, Alpes Maritimae area conquered

21: Regensburg, Germany founded

19 Sep 21: Vergilius (Virgil): b.70, Roman Poet: Aeneid; Albius Tibullus: b.60?, Roman poet

c16: Sextus Propertius: b.47?, Roman poet

8 Nov 27: Horatius (Horace): b.65 Dec 8, Roman Poet, (Carpe diem="Seize the day")

6-4?: Jesus of Nazereth [the Christ] born to Mary and Joseph (a descendant of King David)

4-6 AD: Herod Archelaus: son of Herod & Malthace (Samaritan), ethnarch of Judea

4-34 AD: Philip: son of Herod & Cleopatra, tetrarch of Iturea & Trachonitis

4-39 AD: King Herod the Great of Judea dies and Herod Antipas: son of Herod & Malthace, becomes tetrarch of Galilee & Perea

4: Passover riot in Jerusalem, 1 cohort & c3,000 Jews killed

1 AD: year 1 in Christian calendar, (A.D. = Anno Domini), (see 525); Beginnings of the East African city-states

6: Herod Archelaus deposed by Augustus; Samaria, Judea and Idumea annexed as province Iudaea under direct Roman administration, capital: Caesarea; Zealot's tax revolt: Judah of Gamala & Saddok the Pharisee 7-26: brief period of peace (free of revolt & bloodshed) in Iudaea & Galilee; Quirinius: Legate (Governor) of Syria, 1st Roman tax census of Iudaea

6-9-c12-15-26: Coponius - Ambivius - Rufus - Gratus: Roman Prefects of Iudaea

6-15: Annas (Ananus I) ben Seth: High Priest of Jerusalem Temple, appointed by Quirinius; "House of Annas" produced 8 High Priests between 6ce and 65ce

9-23: Wang Mang: overthrew Han Dynasty of China, attempted radical reforms

9: Arminius the Cheruscan destroys 3 Roman Legions near Rhine river of Germany; Hillel the Elder from Babylonia: b.30bce, "greatest Torah sage of Second Temple period", founded Bet Hillel Torah school; at the request of a student to teach the entire Torah "while standing on one foot" he replied: "What is hateful to you, do not unto your neighbor. This is the entire Torah, all the rest is commentary," i.e., "Go and study it."; "He who magnifies his name destroys it; he who does not increase his knowledge decreases it, and he who does not study deserves to die; and he who makes worldly use of the crown of Torah shall waste away." [Encyclopedia Judaica]

Roman Empire in 14 AD

14-37 Mar16: Tiberius: b.42bce, Roman Emperor, "Son of Divine Augustus", in 19 expelled Septuagint (Greek Bible) missionaries from Rome but they soon returned, in 37 dedicated Temple of Divus Augustus (Divine Augustus)

16-17: Eleazar: son of Annas (6-15), appointed High Priest of Jerusalem Temple

16: Germanicus (adopted by Tiberius in 4) suppressed Revolt of Arminius (9)

17: Titus Livius (Livy): b.59bce, Roman historian: "Ab Urbe Condita"; Loeb:14v; Ovidius (Ovid): b.43bce, Roman Poet: Amores;Ars Amatoria;Metamor.;Loeb:6v

18-36: Joseph Caiaphas: son-in-law of Annas, appointed High Priest of Jerusalem Temple by Prefect Valerius Gratus, deposed by Syrian Legate Vitellius

18-23: "Red Eyebrows" peasant revolt of China: Wang Mang assassinated

c19: Herod Antipas moved Galilean capital from Sepphoris to his new Tiberias

23-220: Later (Eastern) Han Dynasty of China, founded by Kuang-wu at Loyang

c24: Strabo: b.64 BC, Greek geographer, wrote: "Geographica"; Loeb Classics 8v; Pliny the Elder's writing begins

c25: Assumption (Testament) of Moses: original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)

26-36: Pontius Pilate: Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea)

c24-c27: John the Baptist begins ministry: "15th year of Tiberius" [Lk3:1-2], a Nazarite? [Lk1:15], arrested & killed by Herod Antipas [Lk3:19-20]

c27-c29: Jesus Christ baptized by John the Baptist (Mk1:4-11)

c29: John the Baptist arrested and killed by Herod Antipas (Luke 3,19-20)

30: Marcus Manilius: b.10bce?, Roman poet, wrote: Astronomica; (Loeb Classics); Shammai the Elder: founded Bet Shammai Torah school; "Make your study of the Torah a matter of established regularity, say little and do much, and receive all men with a friendly countenance." [Encyc. Judaica: Avot,1,15]; Frontinus' writing begins

c27-c34 Jesus Christ's (the Nazarene) ministry (Hebrew Talmud:Yeshu haNotseri), begins teaching in Capernum: end of 69 'weeks' [means 483 years] prophecy

Palestine from 6 BC to 36 AD

Palestine from 6 BC to 36 AD

c34: Jesus Christ is crucified in Jesrusalem, Friday, Nisan 14th, March 30th, [Ref: John, Unauthorized Version] Last Supper would have been Thursday evening. (7Apr30 & 3Apr33 possible Fri/14/Nisan crucifixion dates): end of 70 'weeks' [means 490 years] prophecy

c34-67: 1st Pope is St. Peter (Simon-Peter or Chephas): Martyred in Rome

34-65?: oral period in Christianity between Jesus & Gospel of Mark, recorded in Acts: Simon-Peter as leader (1st Pope?), John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James son of Alpheus, Simon the Zealot, Judas son of James, Mary the mother of Jesus, Jesus' brothers, sisters, various women [Ac 1:13-14]; only c. 120 initial believers? [Ac 1:15]; Judas Iscariot commits "suicide" [Ac 1:18-19]; Matthias voted replacement [Ac 1:23-26]; 3000 new converts in 1 day? [Ac 2:41]; Peter & John jailed for 1 night for causing riots, converts increase to 5000? [Ac 3]; Ananias and Sapphira die under mysterious circumstances after not giving *all* their possessions [Ac 5]; Aramaic [Ac 1:19] and Greek [Ac 6:1] in use early on; 7 Greeks added to 12 Apostles: Stephen, Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, Nicolaus [Ac 6]; initially only 1 "church" (Greek ekklesia:G1577 most likely just an assembly rather than a formal church), in Jerusalem; Paul of Tarsus, prior to conversion, has Stephen martyred & the Jerusalem "church" destroyed, the original Christians disperse throughout Judea & Samaria [Ac 8:1ff]; Paul converts to "Apostle to the Gentiles" and main activity of Christianity shifts from "Jewish-Christians" of Judea and Galilee (Nazarenes & Ebionites) to "Gentile-Christians" led by Paul & his Patroness [Rm 16:2 prostatis

c36-c41: Marcellus - Marullus: Roman Prefects of Iudaea

36-37: Jonathan: Jerusalem High Priest, app. by Syrian Legate Vitellius

37-62?: Paul of Tarsus: Roman citizen?, tentmaker?, "conversion" in c37 [Gal 1:12,16,Ac9], in c40 went to Jerusalem (1st trip?) to meet Peter & James [Gal1:18-20], in c47-48 on Cyprus with Barnabas [Acts13:4-12], in c49-50 in Corinth (center of his mission to the Gentiles) [Acts18], in c57 last visit to Jerusalem [Acts 21], in c58 imprisoned in Caesarea [Acts23:23-26:32]; in c60 imprisoned in Rome? [Acts 28:16], in c62 martyred for treason in Rome? [Col 1:24, Eph 3:13, 2 Tm 4:6-8, 1 Clem 5:5-7]; 10 traditional Pauline Letters: those written by Paul of Tarsus: Galatians (48-55), 1st Thessalonians (51), Romans (56-58), 1st Corinthians (56), 2nd Corinthians (57), Philippians (55-62); those written by others: 2nd Thessalonians [warns of Christian Letter forgery!] (c60), Colossians (c60), Philemon (c60), Ephesians (c80)

37-41 Jan 24: Gaius Caligula: b.12, Roman Emperor, declared himself God, assassinated, appointed King "Herod" Agrippa I (37-44) of Philip & Lysanias' tetrarchies, in 39 exiled Herod Antipas to Gaul on charges of secret Parthian alliance, in 40 added Herod Antipas' Galilee & Perea tetrarchy to Agrippa I

37: Seneca the Elder: b.55bce?, Roman rhetor: Controversiae, Suasoriae; Loeb:2v

38: Greek-Jewish riots in Alexandria

39-40: Greek-Jewish riots in Antioch; Jewish protest at Ptolemais

c40: 4 Maccabees: written in Greek in Alexandria (Septuagint)

41-54 Oct 13: Claudius: b.10bce, Roman Emperor, poisoned by wife Agrippina, appointed King Herod of Chalcis (41-48), Agrippa I's brother, added Judea & Samaria to Agrippa I, annexed Britain (43-406), founded Londinium (London), persecuted Druids, in 49 expelled Septuagint missionaries: {Since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus {{Christ?}}, he expelled them from Rome.

44: James brother of John executed by sword by Agrippa I [Acts 12:1-3]

44-46: C. Cuspius Fadus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), in 44 beheaded Theudas for parting Jordan (like Exodus), [Acts5:36], in c.45 crucified Jacob and Simon sons of Judah of Gamala (6)

45: C. Julius Phaedrus: b.15bce?, Roman fables

45: Philo Judaeus of Alexandria: b.30bce, Jewish philosopher and hellenizer, tried to unify Greek and Hebrew philosophy

46-48: Tiberius Julius Alexander: Roman Procurator of Iudaea, an apostate Jew

47-59: Ananias ben Nedebaeus: Jerusalem High Priest, app. by Herod of Chalcis

48-93: Agrippa II: King of Judea, ruled from Chalcis (48-52) & Iturea (52-93)

48-52: Ventidius Cumanus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), in 50 Passover riot in Jerusalem, 20-30,000 killed

48-49?: Council of Apostles & Elders: 1st Christian Council?, [Gal 2:1-10, Acts 15] also Incident at Antioch [Gal 2:11-18] where Paul publicly condemned Peter

c50: Peshitta: translation begun, Hebrew OT->Syriac Aramaic, (Greek NT in 400); Ascension of Isaiah: original written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible); Barthelemy Greek Minor Prophets: R943, pb.1953, unknown translation type; Hero of Alexandria invented crude steam engine: "aeolipile"; early Gnostics?: Simon Magus of Samaria, Simonianism [Acts 8:9-24, Petrine Acts,EH2.13,...]; Nicolaus of Antioch, Nicolaitans? [Acts 6:5, Rev 2:6,15, EH3.29.1-3,...]; Menander disciple of Simon Magus; Basilides of Alexandria (d.160?) and Satorninus of Antioch (d.120?) disciples of Menander; ...

52-c60: M. Antonius Felix: Roman Procurator of Iudaea, a Greek freedman, in c55 massacred "Egyptian Prophet" & c.30,000 unarmed Jews doing Exodus reen actment in c58 crushed Jewish revolt in Caesarea

54-68 Jun9: Nero: b.37, Roman Emperor, last of Julio-Claudian Dynasty, in 59 killed mother Agrippina, in 62 killed wife Octavia, married Poppaea Sabina, in 64 Jul 18 "Great Fire", in 65 ordered suicides of poets Seneca the Younger (Dialogi, Naturales quaestiones) & Lucan (Bellum Civile), in 66 entered Olympic Games & won, freed Greece from Roman administration, ordered suicide of courtier Petronius (Satyricon;Loeb:1v), in 68 Jun 9 committed suicide, resurrected as "Nero redivivus"?

56: Tacitus' writings begin

58: Ming-Ti: Chinese Emperor, introduced Buddhism to China

58-170: 3rd Corinthians: by Paul of Tarsus? original in Greek (Armenian Bible)

c60-62-64: Porcius Festus - Lucceius Albinus: Roman Procurators of Iudaea

62: Jesus son of Ananias proclaimed "...a voice against Jerusalem..."; Persius: b.34, Roman Stoic satirist, wrote: "Satirae"; {Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus {II} thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died & Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting [literally, "sanhedrin"] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.}

64-66: Gessius Florus: Roman Procurator of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), a Greek from Asia Minor, raided Temple setting off Jewish rebellion of 66-73

64 Jul 18: Great Fire of Rome: Nero accused Christians: "Therefore to squelch the rumor [that he had started the Great Fire of Rome], Nero created scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people called 'Christians', [a group] hated for their abominable crimes. Their name comes from Christ, who, during the reign of Tiberius, had been executed by the procurator Pontius Pilate. Suppressed for the moment, the deadly superstition broke out again, not only in Judea, the land which originated this evil, but also in the city of Rome, where all sorts of horrendous and shameful practices from every part of the world converge and are fervently cultivated."

65-150: Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifted to Antioch & Rome ("New Babylon" of 1 Pt 5:13)

c65: Q: (German: Quelle=Source), hypothetical Greek text used in Matt & Luke

65-150: Gospel of Peter, Dialogue of the Savior (Complete Gospels); Didache: Instructions of the Apostles, pub. 1883 (Apostolic Fathers); Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224 fragments: pub. 1914, {When the scholars and Pharisees and priests observe[ed hi]m, they were indignant [because he reclined in the com]pany of sin[ners]. But Jesus overheard [them and said,] Those who are well don't need a doctor.]} -5(SV) || Mk 2:15-17; Mt 9:10-13;Lk 5:29-32 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, 1992, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]; Gospel of Thomas: based on Q?, pub. 1959, Greek originals: Papyrus Ox. 1,654-5; {Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, 'Look, the imperial rule is in the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you. If they say to you, 'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you. Rather, the imperial rule is within you and it is outside you. When you know yourselves, then you will be known, and you will understand that you are children of the living Father. But if you do not know yourselves, then you live in poverty, and you are the poverty."} -Th3(SV), cf. Mk 13:21-23; Mt 24:23-28; Lk 17:20-25; Jb 28:12-14,20-22(LXX); Bar 3:29-32,35-37; Dt30:11-14(LXX);Sir1:1-3 {His disciples said to him, "When will the rest for the dead take place, and when will the new world come?" He said to them, "What you are looking forward to has come, but you don't know it."} -Th51(SV), cf. Mt 11:28 -29; DSav65-68; Sir 51:26-27, 6:23-31; Lk 17:20-21; Mk 9:12-13; Mt 17:11; 2Tm 2:17-18 {His disciples said to him, "When will the Father's imperial rule come?" "It will not come by watching for it. It will not be said, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Rather, the Father's imperial rule is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it."} -Th113(SV) || Lk 17:20-21; cf. Mary 4:4-5; Mk 13:21; Mt 24:23; Lk 17:23 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]

65-175: Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840 fragments: pub. 1908, {In response the savior said to him: "I feel sorry for the blind who can't see. You bathe in these stagnant waters where dogs & pigs wallow day & night.} -2:7(SV) cf. Mt 7:6; Jn 9:40-41; 2 Pt 2:22; Rv 22:15 [Ref: The Complete Gospels, ISBN:0-944344-30-5]

65-175: Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments: pub. 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts (c175), {Turning to the rulers of the people, made this statement: "Pore over the writings. You imagine that in them there is life to be had. They do indeed give evidence on my behalf."} -EgerG1:2(SV) || Jn 5:39 (Comp. Gospels)

65-250: Papyrus Fayum (P. Vindob. G. 2325) fragments: pub. 1887, {(He said, after) eating according to custom, "Al[l of you on this] night will fall away, [according to] scripture: 'I will strike the [shepherd and the] sheep will be scattered.'" [When] Peter said, "Even if all, [yet not I," (Jesus said) "Before] the cock crows twice [today three times] you will deny me."} cf. Mk 14:26-31; Mt 26:30-35; Lk 22:31-34 [Ref: Anchor Bible Dictionary, 1992]

65-350: "Jewish-Christian Gospels": 7 fragments of Gospel of the Ebionites and 7 fragments of Gospel of the Hebrews in Greek; 36 fragments of Gospel of the Nazarenes in Aramaic; [Ref: NT Apocrypha, W. Schneemelcher, vol. 1]

66-428: Armenian Arsacid Dynasty: founded by Trdat the Parthian, appr. by Nero

66-73: Roman-Jewish War: final destruction of Second Temple (Herod's Temple) {What more than all else incited them [the Jews] to the [1st Roman] war was an ambiguous oracle ... found in their sacred scriptures, to the effect that at that time 1 from their country would become ruler of the world. This they understood to mean someone of their own race, & many of their wise men went astray in their interpretation of it. The oracle, however, in reality signified the sovereignty of Vespasian who was proclaimed Emperor on Jewish soil} [Josephus' JW 6.312-13, Crossan, Who Killed Jesus?, p44, ISBN:0-06-061479-X]

66: Roman Legate of Syria Cestius Gallus forced to retreat from Iudaea

67: Roman General Vespasianus (Vespasian) conquered Galilee; 1st Pope St. Peter, 1st bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome

67-76-88: Popes St. Linus (2 Tm 4:21?) and St. Anacletus (Cletus)

68: Qumran (Essenes?) (Dead Sea Scrolls - 1949) community destroyed by Rome

68 Jun-69 Jan-69 Apr-69 Dec: Galba-Otho-Vitellius: Roman Emperors, all assassinated.

69-79 Jun23: Vespasianus: b.9, Roman Emperor, appointed by Senate, founded Flavian Dynasty (69-96), built Colosseum, quelled Rome & Jerusalem revolts, in 70 July eldest son Titus reclaimed Roman Antonia fortress in Jerusalem, in August conquered Jerusalem, destroyed Temple; in 71 built Arch of Titus, in 73 Jewish fortress at Masada fell, residents committed mass suicide

69: "Nero redivivus" martyred in Galatia [ABD,Tac.Hist.2.8]

70-361: special annual tax of 2 drachmas levied on all Jews of the Roman Empire since Jupiter Capitolinus (God of Rome) had defeated God of Jerusalem {Besides other taxes, that on the Jews was levied with the utmost rigour, and those were prosecuted who without publicly acknowledging that faith yet lived as Jews, as well as those who concealed their origin and did not pay the tribute levied upon their people. {{These were doubtless Christians, whom the Romans commonly confounded with the Jews.}} I recall being present in my youth when the person of a man ninety years old was examined before the procurator and a very crowded court, to see whether he was circumcised.} [Suetonius, de Vita Caesarum, Book VII, Domitian, XII.2, Loeb Classics]

70-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) period of Judaism: rise of house of Hillel (9)

70-132: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Jabneh (Jamnia), begun by Rabban Johanan ben Zakkai to 'perform commandments & teach Torah'

c70: Gospel of Mark: Peter's interpreter? [1 Pt 5:13], written in Rome?, ends unexpectedly at Mk 16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added c400; "Signs Gospel": hypothetical Greek text used in Gospel of John to prove Jesus is Messiah; [Complete Gospels]: Opening: Jn 1:6-7,19-49; in Galilee: Jn 2:1-12a, 4:46b-54, 21:1-14, 6:1-14,15b-25; in Jerusalem: Jn 11:1-45, 9:1-8,5:2-9; Culmination: Jn 11:47-53, 2:14-19, 12:37-40; Passion Prelude: Jn 12:1-8,12-15; Passion: Jn 18:1-19,42; Resurrection: Jn 20:1-22; Closing: Jn 20:30-31; Suetonius' writings begin

71: "The Jewish War": (JW), by Josephus (c100), written in Greek

c74: Publius Annius Florus: Roman historian; (Loeb Classics) 79-81 Sep13: Titus: b.39, Roman Emperor, Vespasianus' eldest son

79: Pliny the Elder: b.23, Roman scholar, victim of Mt. Vesuvius eruption on August 24 that destroyed Pompeii & Herculaneum, wrote of Essenes; Loeb:10v 80: Terentius Maximus of Parthia claimed to be "Nero redivivus" [ABD]

Go to Top

c80: Gospel of Matthew: most popular in early church, based on Mark and Q; "Council of Jamnia" said to have canonized Jewish Scripture [discredited] 81-96Sep18: Domitianus: b.51, Roman Emperor, Vespasianus' youngest son, "Nero redivivus?", proclaimed himself "Lord & God", stabbed to death by wife ...

81-96: Domitienne Way: This Roman road "Voie Domitienne" was built during the rule of the Roman emperor Titus Flavius Domitianus (51-96), who succeded his brother Titus. Vestiges of the Domitienne Way can be seen where it passed through Cavaillon, Bonnieux and Apt. At Cavaillon, two arcades that crossed the "way" still stand. At Bonnieux, the "way" crossed the Calavon river at the Pont Julien, one of the most beautiful Roman bridges in France.

88: 2nd "Nero redivivus" of Parthia: "Even now his subjects wish he were alive, and most men believe that he is." [ABD,Dio Chrysostom Or.21.10]

88-97: Pope St. Clement I: wrote on the importance of the Bishop of Rome and was martyred

c90: Gospel of Luke: based on Mark & Q, also Acts - same author, style of LXX; Josephus claimed 22 Jewish books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns [AA1.8] c91-c101: Pope Clement I: Phil 4:3?, wrote to Corinth in c95: "1 Clement" (AF) {...Clement's Bible is the Old Testament, to which he refers repeatedly as Scripture (graphe), quoting it with more or less exactness. Clement also makes occasional reference to certain words of Jesus; though they are authoritative for him, he does not appear to enquire how their authenticity is ensured. In two of the three instances that he speaks of remembering 'the words' of Christ or of the Lord Jesus, it seems that he has a written record in mind, but he does not call it a 'gospel'. He knows several of Paul's epistles, and values them highly for their content; the same can be said of the Epistle to the Hebrews, with which he is well acquainted. Although these writings obviously possess for Clement considerable significance, he never refers to them as authoritative 'Scripture'.} [Canon NT,Metzger,p.43]

94: "Jewish Antiquities": by Josephus in Aramaic, trans. to Greek, Testimonium Flavianum: {At this time there appeared Jesus, a wise man. For he was a doer of startling deeds, a teacher of people who receive the truth with pleasure. And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians (named after him) has not died out.} [JA18.3.3 Meier redaction, Marginal Jew, p.61]

c95: Quintilianus: b.35?, Roman rhetor, wrote: "Institutio oratoria"; Loeb:4v

96-98 Jan25: Nerva: b.35?, Roman Emperor, law reform, adopted successor Trajan

c96: Statius: b.40?, Roman poet, wrote: Silvae, Thebais, Achilleis; Loeb:2v

97: Wang Ch'ung: b.27, Chinese Confucianist

97-105: Pope St. Evaristus

98-117 Aug 8: Trajanus: b.53?, Roman Emperor, selected by Nerva, Empire reached maximum size; Roman Arch Aqueduct at Segovia, Spain; annexed Dacia (Romania 106-1453), Arabia (106-c630), Armenia (114-162), Mesopotamia (114-115); revolt in 115-117 when Procurator Lucius Quietus provoked Kitos War in Jerusalem, spread to Libya, Cyrenaica, Egypt, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, ended Roman eastward expansion, Parthia restored, Egyptian Jewry declined ...

c100: Beginnings of Bantu migration in Africa; Peshawar (now in Pakistan) becomes an important trading centre of the Kushan Empire; Gospel of John: only eyewitness? the disciple Jesus loved? Gnostic?; Odes of Solomon: Gnostic?, Greek or Syriac?, ref by John? (Apocrypha); Epistle of Barnabas: Christian exegesis of LXX (AF = Apostolic Fathers); 2 Clement: an old sermon but not by Clement (AF = Apostolic Fathers); 2 Esdras (Vg=Esdrae IV): v14:45 claims 24 Jewish books (Vulgate,Peshitta); Apocalypse of Baruch (2 Baruch in Syriac; 3 Baruch in Greek) (Peshitta); Paralipomena of Jeremiah: (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible); Masoretes at Tiberias compile Masora (MT), standard Jewish Scriptures; Apollonius of Tyana: neo-Pythagorean, raised dead, pred. Domitian's end; Testaments 12 Patriarchs:Hebrew-Aramaic frags @Qumran1,4(Armenian Bible); Epistle to the Laodiceans: [cf.Col 4:16] ??? (Vulgate Fuldensis, see 546); Chang Cheng: Chinese astronomer, built 1st seismoscope; Flavius Josephus: b.37?, Jewish general, turncoat, historian, hellenist: 71: JW=Jewish War; c90: AA=Against Apion; 94: JA=Jewish Antiquities; Loeb10v

Traderoutes of the 1st Century AD

100-150: Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels)

105-115: Pope St. Alexander I



c110: Ignatius: 3rd bishop of Antioch, martyred in Rome, letters subjected to heavy Christian forgery, advocated bishop: "careful not to oppose the bishop , in order that we may be obedient to God. ... regard the bishop as the Lord himself." [I Eph 5-6]; "godly bishop ... presiding in the place of God ... Lord did nothing without the Father, ... so you must not do anything without the bishop ... be subject to the bishop ... as Jesus Christ in the flesh was to the Father," [IMag2,6-7,13]; "subject to the bishop as to Jesus Christ, ... respect the bishop, who is a model of the Father," [I Tr 2-3]; "follow the bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, ... one who honors the bishop has been honored by God;" [I Smy 8-9]; rejected Sabbath: "no longer keeping the Sabbath but living in accordance with the Lord's Day," [I Mag 9.1] (AF)

c114: Lucius Apuleius: Roman satirist: The Golden Ass, Metamorphoses; Loeb:2v and 3v; Pliny the Younger: b.61?, Roman consul, recorded Christians as "singing hymns to Christ as to a god" [Letter 10.96]

115: Lucian: Gk satirist: Passing of Peregrinus (satire of Christians); Loeb8v

115-125: Pope St. Sixtus I

117-138 Jul 10: Hadrianus: b.76, Roman Emperor, built wall across Britain

c117: Publius Cornelius Tacitus: b.55?, Roman Historian: "Annals"; (Loeb:5v)

c120: Plutarch: b.46?, Greek historian, wrote 200+: "Parallel Lives"; Loeb:27v

c125: Papyrus 52: oldest extant NT fragment, p.1935, parts of Jn 18:31-33,37-38

c125: Shepherd of Hermas: written in Rome (AF = Apostolic Fathers); Quadratus: bishop of Athens [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,Eerdmans,v.8]

125-225: "Christian Apologists" writings against Roman Paganism by: Quadratus (c125), Aristides of Athens (c145), Justin Martyr (165), Tatian (172), Melito (177), Apollinaris (c180), Athenagoras (c180), Theophilus (180), also Epistle to Diognetus (150-225?) in Apostolic Fathers

125-136: Pope St. Telesphorus: Martialis: b.40?, Roman epigrammist

125: (Loeb Classics: 2 volumes) c105: Ts'ai Lun: of China "invents" paper, monopoly held till 751 [earliest extant papers are c.100bce from Sian (1957) & 49bce from Sinkiang (1933)]

c130: "Gospel of Basilides": a 24 book commentary?, Gnostic?, lost; Papias: bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote: "Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord", lost, widely quoted, see Eusebius (340) (AF); Aquila of Pontus: Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek OT translation in Jabneh (Jamnia)

132-135: Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome after Hadrianus, Roman Emperor, tried to build Jupiter Capitolinus Temple on Jerusalem Temple, Judea and Jerusalem erased from maps, southern Syria renamed "Palaestina" (coined by Herodotus)

135: R. Akiva ben Joseph of Judea: b.50?, executed by the Romans for teaching Torah in public after revolt, flesh was torn from his body with iron combs, coined "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself" as 1st principle of Torah

136-140: Pope St. Hyginus

138-161 Mar7: Antoninus Pius: b.86, Roman Emperor, selected by Hadrian, in 145 dedicated Temple of Divus Hadrianus (Divine Hadrian)

138-165: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Usha, Galilee

140-155: Pope St. Pius I

c140: Juvenalis: b.60?, greatest Roman Satirist; (Loeb Classics with Persius); Apocalypse of Peter: written in Greek [NT Apocrypha, Schneemelcher,v.2]; Suetonius: b.70, Roman historian: "de Vita Caesarum"; Loeb Classics: 2v; Marcion of Pontus: 1st Radical Paulinist?, inspired by Luke 5:36, claimed Jesus rejected "Law & Prophets" (OT), claimed to have recovered lost original Gospel from Luke, promoted Canon of heavily edited Gospel of Luke and 10 Pauline Letters and his own "Antitheses"; "Western" Gospel text-type

149: Hsu Shen: wrote Shou wen chieh tzu, Chinese dictionary of 10,516 symbols

c150: Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria: Greek astronomer, "Geocentric"; (Loeb); Gospel of the Egyptians: Coptic translation of orig. Greek (Nag Hammadi); Nagarjuna founded Madhyamika (Mahayana Buddhism) school in India; "Teachings of Silvanus": Gnostic; v99.13: Christ has a single hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality]; v102.3: Christ is incomprehensible with respect to his hypostasis (Nag Hammadi); "Western Reviser" adds/subtracts from original Acts to produce "Western" version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae (D) {Who it was that was responsible for the additional information concerning the apostolic age or where it came from is entirely unknown. According to F. G. Kenyon, "What one would like to suppose (but for which there is no external evidence), is that one of St. Paul's companions transcribed Luke's book [Acts] (perhaps after the author's death), and inserted details of which he had personal knowledge, & made other alterations in accordance with his own taste in a matter on which he was entitled to regard himself as having authority equal to that of Luke."} [Textual Comm., Metzger, p272, 3-438-06010-8]; Papyrus Chester Beatty 6: R963, Greek Num 5:12-36:13, Deut 1:20-34:12; Ts'an T'ung Ch'i: by Wei Po-yang of China, earliest extant alchemy

c155: Montanus: of Pepuza, Phrygia; claimed to be Paraclete of John 14:16

155-166: Pope St. Anicetus

c156: Chang Tao-ling: b.34?, Chinese Taoist, left clothes, ascended to heaven

c160: Polycarp: bishop of Smyrna, martyred at 86, wrote "Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians" c.110; "Martyrdom of Polycarp"; both in Greek (AF)

161-180 Mar 17: Marcus Aurelius: b.121, Roman Emperor, selected by Pius, Stoic philosopher, wrote: Greek "Meditationes" & Latin "Letters" (Loeb); Parthia invaded Armenia: 162; Great Plague: 164-180; Boucholoi Revolt of Egyptian Delta: 172; Revolt of Syrian Governor Cassius: 175; German Revolt: 178-188

165-180: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Shefaram, Galilee

165: Justin Martyr: b.114?, Roman Platonist convert to Christianity, martyred, wrote: 1-2 Apology, Dialogue with Trypho a Jew [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.1]; Gellius: b.123?, Roman writer, wrote: "Attic Nights"; Loeb Classics: 3v

166-175: Pope St. Soter: moved "Easter" from Bible's 14 Nisan to following Sunday (Sun's Day)

170: Christian Council of Asia Minor: against Montanus & his Montanist sect; Symmachus: an Ebionite, wrote an entirely new Greek OT translation; Dionysius: bishop of Corinth, complained Christians were changing & faking his own letters just as they had changed the Gospels [EH4.23.12;ANF,v.8]; Alogi: Asia Minor Christian sect, rejected antipope Saint Hippolytus' "Logos" doctrine? (217-235), rejected Gospel of John and Revelations which were said to be written by the Gnostic Cerinthus [Epiphanius, Heresies 51.3] 172: Tatian the Assyrian: b.110, Gnostic?, disciple of Justin Martyr, founded Encratite sect of Antioch, wrote: Address to Greeks [ANF,v.2], used "Law and Prophets" but rejected Acts and Pauline Letters [EH4.29.5], Diatessaron (Harmony) [ANF,v.10] blend of 4 "Western" text-type Gospels into 1: {[the mother of the sons of Zebed]ee (Mt 27:56) & Salome (Mk 15:40) & the wives [of those who] had followed him from [Galile]e to see the crucified(Lk23:49b-c). And [the da]y was Preparation; the Sabbath was daw[ning] (Lk 23:54). And when it was evening (Mt 27:57), on the Prep[aration], that is, the day before the Sabbath (Mk 25:42), [there came] up a man (Mt 27:57), be[ing] a member of the council (Lk 23:50), from Arimathea (Mt 27:57), a c[i]ty of [Jude]a (Lk 23:51), by name Jo[seph](Mt 27:57), good & ri[ghteous] (Lk 23:50), being a disciple of Jesus, but se[cret]ly, for fear of the [Jew]s (Jn 19:38). And he (Mt 27:57) was looking for [the] k[ingdom] of God(Lk 23:51b). This man [had] not [con]sented to [their] p[urpose] (Lk 23:51a)} {#0212} [Text NT,Metzger,0-19-507297-9,p90]

175-189: Pope St. Eleutherius

c175: Acts of Paul: (inc. 3 Cor.), in Greek [NT Apocrypha,Schneemelcher,v.2]; Valentinus: b.100?, founded Gnostic Valentinian School of Rome, taught secret wisdom from Paul [Rm 16:25,1 Cor 2:7] from his disciple Theudas, wrote: "On the 3 Natures", quoted in Pseudo-Anthimus: God is 3 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities] & 3 prosopa [persons]: Father, Son, Holy Spirit

177: Melito: bishop of Sardis [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,Eerdmans,v.8]

178: "True Discourse": by Celsus, an anti-Christian polemic, original lost but fragments recorded by Origen (253) in "Contra Celsum": {Jesus fabricated the account of his birth from a virgin. In reality, Jesus' mother was driven out by the carpenter husband to whom she was betrothed because she had committed adultery with a soldier named Panthera (cf. the Ben Pantere of Jewish sources). Left poor and homeless, she gave birth to Jesus in secret. Jesus later spent time in Egypt, where he hired himself out as a laborer, learned magic, and so came to claim the title of god.} [CC1.28-32, Marginal Jew, Meier,p.223]

180-192 Dec31: Commodus: b.161, Roman emperor, Hercules redivivus, strangled

180-210: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Beth-shearim

180: Theophilus: bishop of Caesarea [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,Eerdmans,v.8]; Gaius: b.110?, Roman jurist, wrote: "Institutiones": summary of Roman Law; Athenagoras: Athenian philosopher convert to Christianity [ANF,v.2]; Apollinaris: bishop of Hierapolis [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.8]

184-204: Yellow Turban Rebellion of China: contributed to final Han overthrow

c185: Theophilus: 7th bishop of Antioch, convert from paganism [ANF,v.2]

189-199: Pope St. Victor I: 1st Latin Pope, called Council in 190 to determine "official" new date of "Easter" but failed, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe "Easter" on Biblical Nisan 14 "Quartodeciman"

c190: Serapion: 9th bishop of Antioch, disputed Gospel of Peter (65) [EH6.12]; Hsu Yo: Chinese mathematician, wrote: Shu Shu Chi I; Heracleon: disciple of Gnostic Valentinus, 1st commentary on Gospel of John (cited by Origen & Clement), wrote: "Tripartite Tractate" (Nag Hammadi)

192-197: Roman Civil War

193 Jan-Mar-Jun: Pertinax - Didius Julianus: Roman Emperors, both assassinated

193-211 Feb4: Septimius Severus: b.146, Roman Emperor, persecuted Christians

196: Polycrates: b.125?, bishop of Ephesus, supported Quartodecimans in "Easter" controversy versus Pope Victor in 190 [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.8]

199-217: Pope St. Zephyrinus

c200: Theodotion: Greek convert to Judaism, made revision of LXX (Septuagint); Papyrus 32: J. Rylands Library: Titus 1:11-15; 2:3-8; Papyrus 64 (+67): Mt 3:9,15; 5:20-22,25-28; 26:7-8,10,14-15,22-23,31-33; Sahidic Coptic cop(sa) Bible translations written in Alexandria; Hypostasis [hidden spiritual reality] of the Archons (Nag Hammadi); Valentinian Exposition: 24.23: Son is hypostasis of Father (Nag Hammadi); Corpus Hermeticum: Alexandrian quasi-Neo-Platonism; Papyrus 66: 2nd Bodmer, John, 1956, "Alexandrian/Western" text-types

c201: Claudius Galen: b.130?, Greek Anatomist: On the Natural Faculties (Loeb)

c202: Irenaeus: 2nd bishop of Lyons, supported Quartodecimans in Easter controversy versus Pope Victor in 190, wrote "Against Heresies" in Greek (lost), extant Latin; "... they have apostatized in their opinions from Him who is God, & imagined that they have themselves discovered more than the apostles, by finding out another god; & that the apostles preached the Gospel still somewhat under the influence of Jewish opinions, but that they themselves are purer, & more intelligent, than the apostles." [AH3.12.12,ANF,v.1]

210-240: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Sepphoris Galilee

211-217 Apr 8-21 Jun 8: Caracallus - Macrinus: Roman Emperors, both assassinated

212: Constitutio Antoniana: Civis Romanus sum!, all free men Roman citizens

217-222-230-235-236-250: Popes Callistus I, Urban I, St. Pontain, St. Anterus, and St. Fabian

217-235: antipope Saint Hippolytus: bishop of Rome, "Logos" sect [ANF,v.5]

217: Judah Ha-Nasi: b.135?, "Rabbi", codified Mishnah (c220); Gaius (Caius): presbyter of Rome, anti-Montanist, wrote "Dialogue against Proclus", rejected Gospel of John, Hebrews, Rev. [Canon NT,Metzger; ANF,v.5]; Clement: b.153, bishop of Alexandria, pagan philosopher convert, cited Alexandrian NT text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians, wrote: "Exhortations", "Paedagogus", "Stromata" (Loeb Classics) [ANF,v.2]

218-222 Mar 11: Heliogabalus (Elagabalus): b.204, Roman Emperor, boy priest promoted Syrian sun-god Elagabal & meteorite brought to Rome, assassinated

220-589: 6 Dynasties period of China: capital Nanjing

220-264: 3 Kingdoms period of China: Wu (south), Wei (north), Shu (west)

220: Goths invaded Asia Minor & Balkans; Minucius Felix: Roman Christian lawyer, wrote in Latin [ANF,v.4]; Mishnah: Torah teachings, Halakhah (Oral Law), Hillel/Akiva/Meir/Judah; Tertullian: b.160?, Carthaginian lawyer, Christian convert in c193 then to Montanism (c155) in c207, "Father of Latin Church", coined "Trinity", "New Testament", 2-natures doctrine (Jesus fully human & divine), advocated exclusion of women from priesthood, wrote: Father, Son, Holy Spirit are 1 substantia yet 3 persona, cited rumor Jesus son of prostitute [Spectaculis 30.6], cited "Western" text-type; (Loeb Classics, Latin) [ANF,v.3-4]

222-235 Mar 18: Alexander Severus: Roman Emperor, halted Christian persecutions

c225: Papyrus 45: 1st Chester Beatty, Gospels (Caesarean), Acts (Alexandrian)

226-241: Ardashir I: Persian Emperor, founded Sasanian Empire of Persia (226- 642), conquered Mesopotamia in 230, Zoroastrianism state religion ...

230-258: Council of Rome: Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria condemns Origen (253)

235-238 Jun: Maximinus: Roman Emperor, ended Christian schism by deporting Pope Pontian & antipope Saint Hippolytus to Sardinia where they died, assassinated.

238-244: Gordianus III: Roman Emperor at age 13, assassinated

240-640: Sanhedrin (High Court) of Judaism regularly held in Tiberias, Galilee

240-258: Council of Carthage: early Christian council

c240: Commodianus: Early Christian Church Father [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.4]

241-272: Shapur I: Persian Emperor, captured Asia Minor, Syria, Valerian (260)

244-249: Philippus the Arabian: Roman Emperor, celebrated 1,000th anniversary of Rome in 248, defeated & killed by Decius

249-251-253-253: Decius - Gallus (assa.) - Aemilianus (assa.): Roman Emperors

249: Wang Pi: b.226, Taoist commentaries on I Ching, Lao-tzu, Chuang-tzu

c250: Diophantus of Alexandria: wrote first book on algebra: "Arithmetica"; Mandeans: followers of John the Baptist, began compilation of "Ginza"; Liu Hui: Chinese mathematician, wrote: Hai Tao Suan Ching; Papyrus 72: Bodmer 5-11+, pub. 1959, "Alexandrian" text-type: Nativity of Mary; 3 Cor; Odes of Solomon 11; Jude 1-25; Melito's Homily on Passover; Hymn fragment; Apology of Phileas;

250-400: Tosefta: supplements to the Mishnah (c220)

250-350: Apostolic Constitutions of Orthodox Christianity: #2.36 (p.413): Thou shalt observe the Sabbath, on account of Him who ceased from His work of creation, but ceased not from His work of providence: it is a rest for meditation of the law, not for idleness of the hands. #6.19 (p.458): For He nowhere has dissolved the law, as Simon pretends, but fulfilled it; for He says: [Mt 5:18,17]. #7.23 (p.469): But keep the Sabbath, & the Lord's day festival; because the former is the memorial of the creation, & the latter of the resurrection. But there is 1 only Sabbath to be observed by you in the whole year, which is that of our Lord's burial, on which men ought to keep a fast, but not a festival. Approved at Orthodox Synod of Trullo in 692 [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.7,Eerdmans]

251-253-254-257-258: Popes St. Cornelius, St. Lucius I, St. Stephen I, and St. Sixtus II; antipope Novatian

253-260: Valerianus: Roman Emperor, notorious persecutor of Christians, in 258 "Valerian's Massacre" executed Pope Sixtus II, antipope Novatian, Bishop Cyprian of Carthage, & all other Christian Bishops, Priests & Deacons

253: Origen: b.185?, used Greek Gnostic term "homoousios" [Jesus & God of "same substance"]; God is 1 genus of ousia [substance] yet 3 distinct species of hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?] of Father, Son, Holy Spirit; compiled "Hexapla": 6 versions of Jewish Scriptures side by side: Hebrew MT, Hebrew transliterated into Greek, Aquila's Greek translation, Symmachus' Greek translation, Origen's revised LXX, Theodotion's revised LXX; also Quinta/Sexta/Septima translations; Tetragrammaton in square Hebrew script; cited "Alexandrian" & "Caesarean" NT text-types; [ANF,v.4,10] According to Eusebius [EH6.8.1-3] Origen castrated himself for Christ due to Mt 19:12 & disputed authenticity of Pauline Letters {Paul ... did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; & even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines.} [EH6.25.7(Loeb)]

257: Visigoths & Ostrogoths invaded Black Sea area, Franks invaded Spain

258: Cyprian: bishop of Carthage, pagan convert, claimed Christians freely forged his letters to discredit him, cited "Western" NT text-type [ANF,v.5]

260-268: Gallienus: Roman Emperor, reversed Valerian, restored Church, assass.

260-268,269-274,275-283-296: Popes St. Dionysius, St. Felix I, St. Eutychian, and St. Gaius (Caius)

264-268: Council of Antioch: condemned Paul of Samosata: bishop of Antioch & founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism); also condemned use of Gnostic term "homoousios" (see 325)

265-316: Western Jin (Chin) dynasty of reunited China: compass invented in 271

265: Dionysius the Great: b.200?, bishop of Alexandria [ANF,v.6]

267-272: Septimia Zenobia: Queen of Palmyra, controlled Egypt

268: Goths sacked Athens, Sparta, Corinth ...

268-270-270: Claudius II (plague) - Quintillus (suicide): Roman Emperors

270-275: Aurelianus: Roman Emperor - Lucius Domitius Aurelianus (214-275), restitutor orbis, vigorously promoted Sol Invictus sun-god (continued by Probus & early Constantinus) & festival dies natalis Solis Invicti (birthday of Invincible Sun) on Dec 25, dedicated Sol Invictus Temple in 274 Dec 25, made Sol the official religion & principle patron of the empire, during his reign he had the Aurelian Way built, he captured Palmyra in 273, reasserting Roman authority, assassinated; {Besides, the Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Christians in a Christian sense, as demonstrated in the Christ as Apollo-Helios in a musoleum (c.250) discovered beneath St. Peter's in the Vatican.} {indeed, from the beginning of the 3d century "Sun of Justice" appears as a title of Christ} [New Catholic Encyclopedia,v.4,p.227,v.3,p.656]

270: Plotinus: b.205, Egyptian philosopher, founded Neo-Platonism, Doctrine of 3 Primal Hypostases: 1 [To Hen], Mind [Nous], Soul [Psyche]; yet the 1 transcends hypostasis, is prior to hypostasis & beyond being; Loeb:7v(Greek)

276-293-302-309: Bahram II - Narses - Hormizd II: Persian Emperors, decline

276-276-276-282-283: Tacitus - Florianus - Probus - Carus; Roman Emperors

277: Mani: b.216, crucified?, founded Manichaean Christian sect in Persia

280: Anatolius of Alexandria: b.230, bishop of Laodicea [ANF,v.6]

283: Carinus: Western Roman Emperor; Numerianus: Eastern Roman Emperor

284-305 May 1: Diocletianus: Roman Emperor, notorious persecutor of Christians, in 286 divided empire into West & East, in 293 divided each into 2 administrative units, in 303-312 "Diocletian's Massacre" edict against Christians

285: Pappus of Alex. described 5 machines: cogwheel/lever/pulley/screw/wedge

286-310: Maximanus: Roman Emperor, co-Augustus, father of Maxentius, suicide

293-311 May: Galerius: Roman Emperor, co-Caesar with Constantius I

293-306 Jul 25: Constantius I: Roman Emperor, co-Caesar, father of Constantinus

294: Codex Gregorianus: compilation of Roman Law

296-304: Pope St. Marcellinus: apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletianus?

c300: Bohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria; Hesychius of Alex.: martyr, translated Hebrew OT to Greek, lost [Jerome]; Kama Sutra: doctrine of sacred sex by Vatsayan Mallagana of Benares; Katayayana: compilation of Indian Law; Paris Magical Papyrus: compilation of writings on magic in Greek; Ch'en Cho: Chinese astronomer, also Kan Te/Shih Shen/Wu Hsien of c350bce; Papyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927

300-700: The Kingdom of Axum flourishes

300-900: Old Mayan Civilization flourishes

maya.gif (7655 bytes)

Mayan civilization from 300 to 1450 AD

c301: King Tiridates III (Trdat) of Armenia is converted to Christianity by Saint Gregory the Illuminator: 1st State to make Christianity the state religion

304: Porphyry: b.233, Neoplatonic philosopher, wrote: "Adversus Christianos"

306-337 May 22: Emperor Constantinus the Great: saw a vision in the sun of a cross with the words "by this sign conquer": in 312 Oct 28 invaded Rome & defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge; in 313 Feb decreed "Edict of Milan" with Licinianus which ended religious persecutions; in 314 called Council of Arles against Donatus; in 315 erected Arch of Constantine; in 321 decreed SUNday (dies Solis) as Roman day of rest [CJ3.12.2]; in 324 defeated & executed Licinianus & became sole Emperor; in 325 May-Aug called Council of Nicaea, 1st Ecumenical, c300 bishops decreed 20 canons, Constantine proposed condemned Gnostic term (264) "homoousios" (Jesus & God of SAME substance) causing "Homoiousians" schism (Jesus & God of LIKE substance) led by Meletius of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem & Basil of Ancyra, by June 19 still 18 bishops refused to sign but under Constantine's threats only Arius, Secundus & Theonas held out & were exiled; in 330 May 11 moved capital to Constantinople (formerly Byzantium); converted to Christianity on deathbed

306-308: Pope St. Marcellus I: tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace

306: Council of Elvira: prohibited eating/marriage/sex between Christian & Jew

309-379: Shapur II the Great: Persian Emperor, regained lost ground from Rome, ordered "Avesta" compilation of Zoroastrian texts back to c. 1,000bce

310: Pope Eusebius: deported to Sicily with antipope Heraclius by Maxentius

311-314: Pope St. Miltiades: given Fausta's palace as papal residence by Constantinus; excommunicated Donatus in 313 for requiring rebaptism of apostates

312: Lucian: founded Exegetical School of Antioch, revised LXX, martyred; Methodius: Early Church Father, martyred [ANF=Ante-Nicene Fathers,v.6]

314-335,336,337-352-366: Popes St. Sylvester I, St. Marcus, St. Julius I, and Liberius

316-589: Tartar invasion of northern (Wei) China

317-420: Eastern Jin (Chin) dynasty of China: capital at Nanking, Tartar advance halted at Battle of Fei Shui in 383

320-335: Chandragupta I: founded Gupta dynasty of northern India (320-495)

c320: Lactantius: b.250?, Early Christian Church Father [ANF,v.7]

c325: Fayyumic Coptic translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11

325-900: Teotihuacan: ancient Mexican city

330: Iamblichus: b.245, Syrian Neoplatonic philosopher

334-365: Codex Hermogenianus: compilation of Roman Law

335-376-414: Samudragupta - Chandragupta II: Gupta dynasty of northern India

335: Council of Jerusalem: reversed Council of Nicaea's condemnation of Arius, on Sep 17 consecrated Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre

336: Arius: b.256?, Greek theologian, Arianism: Father only true God [Jn 17:3], Jesus firstborn of all creation [Col 1:15], Logos (Word) was created [Pr 8:22]

337-361 Nov 3: Constantius II: Emperor of East at 21, Arianism official state religion, in 353 defeated Magnentius, supported antipope Felix II (355-365), in 356 Feb 19 closed all Pagan Temples, first tour of Rome in 357 Apr 28

337-350: Constans: co-Emperor of West @14, killed in Revolt of Magnentius

337-340 Mar: Constantinus II: co-Emperor of West @20, killed by Constans

338: Judaism standardizes 19-year cycle lunisolar calendar

c339: Eusebius: b.260?, bishop of Caesarea, cited "Caesarean" NT text-type, wrote: "Ecclesiastical History" (EH); (Loeb Classics: 2 volumes, Greek); quoting Papias bishop of Hierapolis (c130): {"& the Presbyter used to say this, 'Mark became Peter's interpreter & wrote accurately all that he remembered, not, indeed, in order, of the things said or done by the Lord. For he had not heard the Lord, nor had he followed him, but later on, as I said, followed Peter, who used to give teaching as necessity demanded but not making, as it were, an arrangement of the Lord's oracles, so that Mark did nothing wrong in thus writing down single points as he remembered them. For to 1 thing he gave attention, to leave out nothing of what he had heard & to make no false statements in them.'" This is related by Papias about Mark, & about Matthew this was said, "Matthew collected the oracles in the Hebrew language , & each interpreted them as best he could."}[EH3.39.14-16(Loeb)]; Eusebius' NT Canon [EH3.3,25]: Recognized: 4 Holy Gospels, Acts, 10 Pauline Letters, 1-2 Tim, Tit, 1 Pt, 1 Jn; Disputed: Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Diatessaron, Jewish-Christian Gospels, Hebrews, Acts of Paul, James, 2 Pt, 2-3 Jn, Jude, Rev, Apocalypse of Peter Rejected: Gospels of Peter, Thomas, Matthias, Acts of Andrew, John ...

343: Council of Sardica: decreed 20 canons (laws); Ko Hung: b.283, Chinese alchemist, immortality pills, wrote Pao-p'u-tzu

c350: Papyrus Antinoopolis: of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950; Papyrus Bodmer 45-46: Greek Susanna, Daniel 1:1-20 (Theodotion's LXX); Akhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John; Ulfilas: apostle to the Goths (Germans), translated Greek NT to Gothic; Nag Hammadi Codices: Coptic Gnostic Library, 12 papyrus codices, 1945; Old Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels: Syr(s) & Syr(c), of "Western" text-type; Canon Muratorian: 4 Gospels, Acts, 10 Pauline Letters, 1-2 Tim, Titus, 1-2 Jn, Jude, Wisdom; disputes 3 Jn, Rev, Apoc. of Peter, Hermas [ANF,v.5]; Doctrine of Addai: Syriac account of founding of Christianity in Edessa by Addai (=Thaddeus); Canon of Diatessaron,Acts, 10 Paul,1-2 Tim,Tit,Heb,3 Cor; Papyrus Chester Beatty: #4:R961: Greek Gn 9:1-44:22; #11: Greek Sir 36:28- 37:22,46:6-47:2; #12: Greek Enoch 93:12-13,94:7-8,97:6-104:13,106:1-107:3; Codex Sinaiticus (S or): earliest Christian Bible, (LXX - 2-3Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon + 27 NT + Barnabas + Hermas), missing Hermas 31.7-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type; Codex Vaticanus (B): earliest Christian Bible (LXX - Maccabees - Psalms of Solomon + 23NT???), missing Gn 1-46:28, Ps 105:27-137:6, 1 Tm-Phm, Heb 9:14-end; of "Alexandrian" text-type: most accurate text-type; Comma Johanneum: "in heaven, the Father, the Word, & the Holy Ghost: & these 3 are 1. & there are 3 that bear witness in earth," [1 Jn5:7b-8a(KJV)]; 1st found in Latin book "Liber Apologeticus" by Gnostic Priscillian, found in only 4 Greek manuscripts!, none prior to 11th century! [Epis.John,Brown]

357: 2nd Council "Blasphemy" of Sirmium: condemned Council of Nicaea (Anomean)

359: Double Council of Rimini-Seleucia: Dated Creed (Homoean)

360: Huns invaded Europe, scrolls began to be replaced by books (Codex); Canon Cheltenham: (aka Mommsen's), claimed 24OT+24NT based on Rev 4:4: OT,Ps 151,Tobit,Judith,1-2 Mac,4 Gospels,Acts,10 Paul,1-2 Tim,Tit,1-2 Pt,1-3 Jn, Rev

Barbarian Invasions (350-600 AD)

Barbarian Invasions from 350 to 600 AD

361-363 Jun26: Emperor Julianus "the Apostate": Pagan revival; (Loeb:3v, Greek)

363-364 Feb: Jovianus: Roman Emperor, lost Armenia to Shapur II of Persia

364-375 Nov17: Valentinian I: Emperor of West, appointed brother Valens to East

364-378 Aug9: Valens: Emperor of East, Arian, tolerant of Pagans & Jews

365: Acacius: bishop of Caesarea, Homoeans: Son is homoios (like) Father; Council of Laodicea: in Phrygia; decreed 59 canons: #16 (p.133): The Gospels are to be read on the Sabbath [i.e. Saturday], with the other Scriptures. #29 (p.148): Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather honouring the Lord's Day; &, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ. + #60 (p.159): KJV Canon +Baruch +Epistle of Jer. -Rev.[Nicene & Post-N. Fathers:7 Ecum. Councils,2ndS.,v.14,Eerdmans]

366 Sep-367 Nov: antipope Ursinus: leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius; Oct 1-384 Dec 11: Pope St. Damasus I: hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians), in 382 called Council of Rome which rejected 381 Council of Theodosius (not accepted till Lyons II in 1274), had Jerome begin Latin Bible revision, decreed Canon of OT,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom,Sirach,1-2 Macc,27 NT? [disputed]; in 384 Jerome presented new Latin Gospels, originals lost

367: Saxons, Picts, and Irish attack Britain; Celtic pagan revival about this time in Britain

367-383 Aug 25: Gratianus: Emperor of West, hunted pagans with Ambrose, assassinated.

369: Imperial Roman rule restored in Britain, but henceforth a rapid decline of towns and villa economy

370: Aetius: Christian bishop, Syntagmation: "God is agennetos (unbegotten)"

373: Athanasius: b.295, bishop of Alexandria, condemned at 335 Jul Council of Tyre, called 362 Council of Alexandria, decreed God is 3 hypostases, in 367 Festal Letter 39 decreed Canon of OT,Baruch,Ep Jer,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom, Sirach,Didache,Hermas,27 NT [NPNF,s2,v4]

375-387,388-392 May 15: Valentinian II: Emperor of West at age 41, assassinated

376: Photinus: bishop of Sirmium: Jesus was a man adopted by the Father as Son

379-395 Jan 17: Theodosius the Great: last united Roman Emperor, in 381 May-July called Council at Constantinople, 2nd Ecumenical, against Bishop Macedonius, decreed 4-7 canons?; in 390 declared Nicene Christianity official state religion on Feb 27, Riot & Massacre at Thessalonica, performed public penance for on Dec 25; in 391 anti-Pagan Edicts such as purges of non-Christian works at Library of Alexandria; in 393 halted Olympics

c379: Basil the Great: b.330?, bishop of Caesarea; (Loeb Classics 4v, Greek)

c380: Canon 85: of Apostolic Constitutions (see 250-350): OT, Judith, Sirach, 1-3 Macc, Didache, 1-2 Clement, 26 NT (exc. Rev), lists itself also [ANF,v.7]; the last major Kurdish dynasty, the Kayosids, fell around this time

383: In Britain, Maximus (the 'prince Macsen' of Welsh and Cornish legend) proclaimed emperor by British army

384 Dec-399 Nov 26,27-401 Dec 19: Popes St. Siricius (criticized Jerome) and St. Anastasius I

385: Tao-an: b.312, Chinese Buddhist philosopher

386: Cyril: archbishop of Jerusalem, cited "Caesarean" text-type [NPNF,s2,v7]

387: Maximus moves British troops to the Eupropean mainland

388: Maximus defeated and killed, but British link with Roman Empire remains weakened

390: Apollinaris of Laodicea: b.310, Jesus is human body & divine spirit

391: Library of Alexandria: "The Center of Western Culture," is partialy burned

394: Council of Constantinople: called by Bishop Nectarius

395-410: Alaric: Visigoth King, sacked Athens in 396, Rome on 410 Aug 14

395-408: Arcadius: Eastern Roman Emperor, father of Theodosius II

395-423: Honorius is made Western Roman Emperor

c395: Ausonius: b.310?, Christian governor of Gaul; (Loeb Classics 2v, Latin); Ammianus Marcellinus: b.330?, Christian historian, wrote: "Res gestae"; Niall, High King of Ireland, sacks cities of western Britain

397: Ambrose: b.339?, bishop & governor of Milan, wrote: "de Fide"; Ling-pao ching wrote "Book of the Sacred Jewel", Taoist philosophy

399: Stilicho clears Britain of barbarians (the first 'rescue' described by Gildas?)

399-421-459: Yazdigird I - Bahram V: Persian Emperors

c400-450: Cunedda, from the north, takes over a large part of Wales: other cheiftans in western and northern Britain claim succession to Roman Imperial power; Missionary and literary activity by British Christians: St Ninian converts some of the Picts in Britain; heretic Pelagius teaches in Rome; possible settlement of monks or hermits in Glastonbury area, Britain

400-600: era of "aggressive forgeries" in Christian texts [Grant,JTS,1960]

c400: Jenne-Jeno in Nigeria; Palestinian Talmud (Mishnah (Oral Law) + Gemara (Mishnah commentary)); Pericope of the Adulteress: John 7:53-8:11, added to Bible [Jerome,(D)]; Codex Vercellensis it(a): Latin Gospels, of "European" text-type; The Kingdom of Axum converts to Christianity: Ethiopic Bible: in Ge'ez, 81 books, standard Ethiopian Christian Bible; Peshitta Bible: Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Syr(p), OT + 22 NT, excludes: 2 Pt, 2-3 Jn, Jude, Rev; Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Christian Bible; Vulgate Bible: (Hebrew OT ->Latin, Greek NT ->Latin), by Jerome? (c419), originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Roman Catholic Bible; early Christian Canon Law: in Greek, 20 from Nicaea (325), 25 from Ancyra (314), 15 from Neocaesarea (315), 20 from Gangra (c325), 25 from Antioch (341), 59 from Laodicea (c365) [NPNF:7 Ecumenical Councils]; Codex Bobiensis it(k): c. half of Mt/Mk in Latin, "African" (Carthage) text-type, has "shorter" ending of Mark after Mk 16:8: {But they reported briefly to Peter & those with him all that they had been told. & after this Jesus himself sent out by means of them, from east to west, the sacred & imperishable proclamation of eternal slavation.} [Text.Com., Metzger, p.123]; Jerome cited "expanded" ending of Mark found in (W) after Mk 16:14: {& they excused themselves, saying, "This age of lawlessness & unbelief is under Satan, who does not allow the truth & power of God to pervail over the unclean things of the spirits [or does not allow what lies under the unclean spirits to understand the truth & power of God]. Therefore reveal thy righteousness now" - thus they spoke to Christ. & Christ replied to them, "The term of years of Satan's power has been fulfilled, but other terrible things draw near. & for those who have sinned I was delivered over to death, that they many inherit the spirtual & incorruptible glory of righteousness which is in heaven."} [A Textual Commentary on the Greek NT, Bruce Metzger, p.124]

Go to Top

401-417: Pope St. Innocent I: decreed Roman custom the norm for Roman Catholicism, in Letter #6 (to Exuperius) listed Canon of OT,Tobit,Judith,1-2 Macc,27 NT

402: Stilicho withdraws troops from Britain

403: Epiphanius: b.315, bishop of Salamis, Cyprus; in 370 cited Canon of OT, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremiah, Wisdom, Sirach, 27 NT [Heresies 8.6, 76.5 ...]

405-411: Fa-hsien: Chinese Buddhist, visited India

c405: Prudentius: b.348, greatest Christian Latin poet; (Loeb Classics: 2v); Niall, High King of Ireland, killed at sea: Irish threat to Britain henceforth much reduced, though some Irish settlers remain, e.g. in south Wales

406-428: Gunderic: Vandal King, allied with Alans & Sciri invaded Spain in 409

406-407: Franks invaded Gaul, Romans retreated from Britain (begun in 383)

406: Armenian Bible: translated by St. Mesrop [Life of Mesrop]

407: Saint John Chrysostom: of Antioch, famous anti-Semite [NPNF]; Constantine III (the 'Bendigeit Custennin' of Welsh legend, and King of Britain in Geoffrey of Monmouth) proclaimed emperor by British army: goes to Gaul taking most of the remaining regular forces

408-450: Theodosius II: Eastern Roman Emperor at 7, in 431 Jun-Aug called Council of Ephesus, 3rd Ecumenical, against Patriarch Nestorius (451), decreed 6-8 canons?, Mary is "Mother of God" (Theotokos) [cf. Artemis of Ephesus]; in 438 ordered "Codex Theodosianus" compilation of Roman Law; in 449 Aug called "Robber" Council of Ephesus (Monophysite)

c408: Claudian: b.370?, Alexandrian Latin poet: "Rape of Prosperine" ; Loeb:2v

410: Great Saxon attack on Britian: the regional councils or civitates rebel against Constantine, Britain is now autonomous within Roman Empire; provisional de facto recognition by Emperor Honorius

412: Visigoths under Ataulf invaded France, in 416 Spain

413: Kumarajira: b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher

414-454: Kumaragupta I: Gupta dynasty of northern India, invaded by White Huns

414: Sheng-chao: b.384, Chinese Buddhist philosopher, wrote: "Chao-lun"

415 Mar: Saint Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria: d.444, had monks murder woman philosopher & mathematician Hypatia by scraping off skin with oyster shells; expelled Jews; persecuted Novatianists; [Gibbon's Decline & Fall, v2, p816]; coined "hypostatic union": Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures] yet 1 hypostasis

c416: C.R. Namatianus: last Pagan Latin poet, wrote: "de Reditu Suo"

417: Hui-yuan: b.334, Chinese Buddhist philosopher

417-418-422-432-440: Popes St. Zosimus, St. Boniface I, St. Celestine I, and St. Sixtus III

418 Dec 27-419 Apr 3: antipope Eulalius

c418: Imperial Roman expedition to Britain and partial re-occupation (the 2nd 'rescue' descibed by Gildas?) according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

c419: Saint Jerome: S.E. Hieronymus, b.347?, Christian Latin Scholar; (Loeb)

421: Agricola introduces Pelagian doctorine into Britain

c425: Philostorgius: Greek Church Historian: Ecclesiastical History c325-425; "Way to Purity": Buddhist doctrine written by Buddhaghosa of Ceylon; no Roman imperial forces or administration in Britain after this date: Vortigern probably beginning to rise to prominence; Saxons in Cambridgeshire, Britain

c427: Ashi: head of Sura Yeshiva, "Rabbana", began compilation of Babylonian Talmud

428-c460: Gaiseric: Vandal King, Arian?, invaded N. Africa in 429, Hippo in 430, Carthage in 439 Oct 29, brutal sack "vandalism" of Rome in 455

429: Picts, Scots, Celts expelled from southern England by Anglo-Saxon-Jutes; St. Germanus in Britain to combat Pelgianism, apparently favoured by Vortigern's 'Celtic' party

430 Aug 28: St. Augustine of Hippo: b.354, Gnostic (Manichaean) convert to Christianity, origin of "Original Sin", in 393 called Council of Hippo, decreed Pope Damasus' Canon [NPNF,s2,v14], in 394-419 called Council of Carthage, decreed 138 canons (laws); wrote: City of God, Confessions; Loeb:10v(Latin); Sidonius Apollinaris begins writing

431: Syrian Christianity split into East (Nestorians) & West (Jacobites)

432: Saint Patrick: 385-461, "Apostle of Ireland", began mission to Ireland

434-453: Attila: b.406?, King of the Huns, "Scourge of the Gods"

434: Chu Tao-sheng: b.360?, Chinese Buddhist philosopher

440: Extensive Saxon raiding in Britain

440-461-468-483-492: Popes St. Leo I the Great, St. Hilarus, St. Simplicius, and St. Felix III

446: Unsuccessful appeal to civitates to Aëtius (according to Gildas)

447: Votigern predominant in Britain; 2nd visit of St. Germanus

447-458: Merovich the first Merovingian king of France ruled

450-457: Marcian: Eastern Roman Emperor, in 451 Oct-Nov called Council of Chalcedon, 4th Ecumenical, condemned Council of Ephesus of 449, decreed 8-30 canons?, Nicene Creed ..., God is 1 ousia [substance] yet 3 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?], Pope Leo I's Tome of 449: Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures: 1 fully human & 1 fully divine] yet 1 hypostasis (compromise solution of Jesus god/man schisms); yet in 453 Pope Leo I rejected canons of Chalcedon, not accepted till Lyons II in 1274

c450: Mark's Resurrection of Jesus: Mark 16:9-20, added to Bible [(A),(D)]; Socrates: Greek Church Historian, wrote: Ecclesiastical History 305-439;Sozomen: Greek Church Historian, wrote: Ecclesiastical History 324-439; Chief Hawai'i-Loa of Raiatea discovered Hawai'ian Islands; Codex Alexandrinus (A): (LXX + 14 Church_Odes + 27 NT + 1-2 Clement), missing 1 K12:17-14:9, Ps 49:20-79:11, Psalms of Solomon, Mt 1-25:6, Jn 6:50- 8:52, 2 Cr 4:13-12:6, 1 Clement 57.7-63.4, 2 Clement 12.5b-end; "Alexandrian" type; Codex Bezae (D): Greek/Latin Gospels + Acts; Codex Washingtonianus (W): Greek Gospels; both of "Western" text-type: "fondness for paraphrase"; Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus (C): Greek LXX + 27 NT, many gaps; Codex Marchalianus (Q): Greek LXX + Luke + John, many gaps; Codex Ambrosianus (F): Gk Gen-Josh; Codex Freer: Gk Deut. & Joshua; Codex Colberto-Sarravianus: Origen's Greek Hexapla LXX of Gen-Judg; Codex Palatinus it(e): Latin Gospels, "African" (Carthage) text-type; Codex Veronensis it(b): Latin Gospels, "European/Vulgate" text-type; Syr(pal): Palestinian Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, of "Caesarean" text-type; std. Aramaic Targums: T. Onkelos of Torah, T. Jonathan of Prophets; Bodhidharma: founded Zen Buddhism in India, brought to China; Angles, Saxons, and Jutes settle in Thanet, Britain and elsewhere as auxullary troops with Vortigerns's permission

451: Battle of Avarayr: Persia defeated Armenia, tried to force Zoroastrianism; Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople: Mary was *not* "Mother of God" & Christ is 2 phuseis [2-natures] & 2 hypostases [hidden spiritual realities?]

452-456-479-539-571: Anko - Yuryaku - Senka - Kinmei: Japanese Emperors

452: Eutyches of Constantinople: Monophysites: Jesus Christ is 1 divine nature

454-467,475-495: Skandagupta - Budhagupta: Gupta dynasty of northern India

455: Chichen Itza: founded by Mayans on Yucatan Peninsula; Gengist seizing territory in Kent, Britain (Battle of Aylesford)

457: Battle of Crayford, Britain; general Ango-saxon revolt about this time and sacking of lowland Britain: flight of refugees to Amorica (which thus begins to become 'Brittany') and to Spain; collapse of British economy

457-474: Leo I: Eastern Roman Emperor

458-482: Childeric I: Frank King, father of Clovis I

459-484-531-579: Peroz - Kavadh I - Khusrau I: Persian Emperors

461: Death of Vortigern: after this, a gradual British recovery under the remnant of the Romanized citizenry led by Ambrosius

470: Seaborne British army joins Amorica settlers in campaign to restore authority of Emperor Anthemius in Gaul; Ambrosius's counter-offensive against Anglo-Saxons beginning around this time; Faustus, a British bishop, perhaps a son of Vortigern, prominent in Gaul; British church now virtually cut off but regaining vigour

476 Aug 28: Official End of Western Roman Empire; last Emperor: Romulus Augustulus

476-491: Zeno the Isaurian: founded Byzantine Empire (476-1453); in 482 decreed Patriarch Acacius' "Henotikon" against Pope Leo's "2-natures" causing Acacian Schism till 519; in 489 destroyed Nestorian school at Edessa

477: Aelle, the South Saxon leader, lands near Selsey, Britain

480-490: Britain is prosperous, according to St. Germanus's biographer

c480: Arthur, King of the Britons, is born

482-511 Nov 11: Clovis I: Frank King, capital Paris, Roman Catholic in 496

483: Christian Council of Persia adopted Nestorian (451) doctrine

488: St. Bridget comes to Glastonbury, Britain from Ireland

491: Armenian Church seceded from Byzantine & Roman Churches

491-518 Jul 9-527 Aug1: Anastasius I - Justinus I: Byzantine Emperors

492 Mar 1-496 Nov 21: Pope St. Gelasius I: first "Vicar of Christ" [495 May 13]

493-526 Aug 30: Theodoric the Great: b.454?, Ostrogoth King of Italy

495: Cerdic, the West Saxon leader, lands from Southhampton Water, Britian

496-498-514-523-526: Popes Anastasius II, St. Symmachus, St. Hormisdas, and St. John I

498 Nov 22-499 Feb,501-506: antipope Lawrence: Lawrentian schism

498: Nestorians (451) settled in Nisibis, Persia

c500: Codex Sangallensis vg: earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels; Codex Argenteus (got): earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels; Codex Cottonianus: Greek Genesis; Susrata: Indian medical book compiled; Angles and Saxons on Humber, in North Lincolnshire, in East Anglia, Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, Hampshire, and advancing from the Wash toward the Upper Thames in Britain; Jutes in Kent and New Forest, Britain; British migration to Amorica continuing (and throughout century), but some success in Britain in containing the invasion; King Arthur of the Britons emerges as a leader; St. Illtud at Llantwit Major during first quarter of 6th century: many disciples forward movment of Church in western Britain

502: Narsai of Mealletha: Syrian poet, headed Nestorian school @ Nisibis (498)

508: Cerdic defeats the Britons in Netley Marsh, Britain

511-558: Childebert I rules France

513: Mt. Vesuvius erupts again (see 79)

516/518: Britons under King Arthur wins great victory at 'Mount Badon', probably regaining lost ground in Thames Valley and north-west of London, Britain; after this a phase of British ascendancy and comparative peace, with some Saxons returning to the European mainland; Gildas, Cadoc, David and other important ecclesiastical figures active during the next half-century in Britain; Britons assisting Irish Christianity; Monestary at Glastonbury on present site in Britain

516-524: Sigismund: Burgundian King, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism

520: Institutionis Grammaticae: Latin grammar by Priscianus of Constantinople

524-532: Godomar: Burgundian King, overrun by Franks

525: Dionysius Exiguus set Christian calendar (A.D.) & Jesus Christ's birth at 1 AD, Dec 25th

525: Boethius: b.475?, Roman Catholic philosopher, wrote: "Theological Tractates", "Consolation of Philosophy"; (Loeb Classics, Latin)

526-530-532-535-536-537: Popes St. Felix IV (III), Boniface II, John II, St. Agapitus I, and St. Silverius

526-534-541: Athalaric - Hildebad: Ostrogoth Kings of Italy

526: major earthquake hits Antioch killing c. 250,000

527-565 Nov 14: Justinianus the Great: Byzantine Emperor, empire reached largest size, persecuted Pagans & Jews; in 529 closed 900 year old Athens Academy of Philosophy; in 529-535 ordered "Corpus juris civilis" compilation of Roman Law by Tribonian; in 532 Jan Nika Riot of Blues & Greens; in 533 Belisarius captured N. Africa from Vandals & in 535 began reconquest of Italy; Council of Clermont excluded Jews from public office; in 536 Dec 9 Belisarius captured Rome, held till 546 when Totila the Ostrogoth King (541-552) starved last residents into submission; in 537 Dec 27 dedicated Hagia Sophia; in 538 Council of Orleans required Jews to remain indoors during "Passion Week"; in 540 Persians sacked Antioch & took Syria, Ostrogoths retook Italy; in 542- 594 plague, *halved* population of Europe!; in 543 condemned Origen, disastrous world earthquakes; in 544 condemned "3 Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) & other "2-natures" Christology of Pope Leo's 449 Tome; in 552-554 Narses defeated Ostrogoths & retook Italy; in 552 sent Christian missionaries to China & Ceylon to get silkworm; in 553 May-Jul called 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th Ecumenical; decreed "Theopaschite Formula"

530: antipope Dioscorus: was elected but P. Felix IV designated P. Boniface II

537 Mar 29-555 Jun 7: Pope Vigilius: involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspired with Justinianus & Theodora, in June 547 issued "Iudicatum" supporting Justinianus' anti-"2-natures", excommunicated at Council of Carthage in 550

537/539: King Arthur of the Britons killed in Battle of Camlann

543: Yu p'ien: Chinese phonetic dictionary using Fan ch'ieh system

545: The five kings denounced by Gildas ruling over western Britain about this time, Maelgwn of Gywnedd being the most important

546: Codex Fuldensis vg(F): Latin Vulgate, 27 NT + Epistle to Laodiceans (c100)

547: Yellow Plague in Britain; death of Maelgwn of Gywnedd

550-1453: Medieval Greek of Constantinople (Byzantium) became standard Greek

550: Byzantine Greek Text: Greek Orthodox Bible, much smoothing & conflation; St. David converted Wales to Christianity, crucifix became Christian icon; Toltecs invaded Yucatan Peninsula & conquered Teotihuacan civilization; Codex Mediolanensis vg(M): Latin Vulgate Gospels; Codex Veronensis: Greek & Old Latin Psalms; "Book of Taliesin": Welsh poems by Taliesin; Codex Claromontanus (Dp): Greek/Latin Pauline Letters, includes Canon of c350: OT,Tobit,Judith,Wisdom,Sirach,1-2-4 Macc,Barnabas,Hermas,4 Gospels, Acts,7 Pauline Letters (excludes Philippians & 1-2 Thess),1-2 Tim,Tit,Acts of Paul,James,1-2 Pt,1-3 Jn,Jude,Rev,Apocalypse of Peter; "Western" text-type

552: West Saxons resume advance in Britain: British defeat at Salisbury

556-561: Pope Pelagius I: selected by Justianianus, endorsed "Iudicatum"

558-562-566-584-628-637: Clotaire I - Caribert - Chilperic - Clotaire II - Dagobert I: Frank Kings

561 Jul 17-574 Jul 13: Pope John III: authorized by Justianianus

563: St. Columba founds Iona in Britain

565-578-582-602-610: JustinII-TiberiusII-Maurikios-Phocas: Byzantine Emperors

568-774: Lombards invaded Italy, converted to Roman Catholicism in 589

c570-600: Oldest surviving Welsh poetry: Taliesin, Aneirin, Llywarch Hen, Myddin ('Merlin'); Urbgen drives back the northern Angles in Britain

571: Saxons overrun British enclave in Buckinghamshire

571-585-587-592: Bintas - Yomei - Sushun: Japanese Emperors

575 Jun 2-579 Jul 30: Pope Benedict I: authorized by Justin II

577: British defeat at Dyrham: Loss of Bath, Cirencester, and Gloucester, 'West Welsh' isolated

579-590-604 Mar 12: Popes Pelagius II (died of plague) and St. Gregory I the Great

c580: Cassiodorus: Roman Senator, founded Monasteries, translated Greek->Latin

586-601: Recared: Visigoth King of Spain, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism, in 589 called 3rd Council of Toledo, Filioque added to Latin Nicene Creed?

589-618: Sui dynasty of China: reunited China, Grand Canal, book printing, in 606 standard examinations for public office

590-628 Apr 3: Khusrau II: Persian Emperor, in 611-614 captured Antioch, Damas- cus, Tarsus, Jerusalem, "Holy Cross of Christ", in 619 Egypt; assassinated

592-628: Suiko: Japanese Empress, Sinoization, Shitenno-ji Monastery at Osaka, Hoko Temple, Shotoku Taishi Law, Horyuji & Hokoji Temples at Nara

593-603: Aethelfrith of Northumbria gaining ground in northern Britain; British defeat at Catterick (Gododdin)

595: 1st authenticated record of Base 10 (decimal) number system (0-9) appears in India

596: St. Augustine of Canterbury sent to convert England to Roman Catholicism: in 597 he is in Kent

600: Babylonian Talmud (Mishnah(Oral Law) + Gemara(Mishnah commentary)); Antara ibn Shaddad: 1 of 7 great Arab poets; Codex Harleianus vg(Z): Latin Vulgate Gospels; Codex Philoxenian/Harclean Syr(ph/h): Syriac 27 NT, "Western" text-type; Vaghbata: Indian medical book compiled

601: Ch'ieh yun: Chinese phonetic dictionary of Northern Chinese dialect

603: Aethelfrith routs Aedan, King of Scots in Britain; Welsh bishops refuse to co-operate with Augustine

604-606-607-615: Popes Sabinian, Boniface III, and St. Boniface IV: authorized by Phocas

606-647: Harsavardhana of Kanauj: reunited northern India

610-641: Heraclius: Byzantine Emperor, in 627 Dec 12 defeated Persians at Nineveh & discovered Indian sugar cane, in 628 recovered "Holy Cross of Christ", in 629 defeated Muslims at Battle of Mu'ta & recovered Jerusalem (till 638), in 636 Aug 15 defeated by Muslims in Syria at Battle of Yarmuk River, in 638 decreed Patriarch Sergius' "Ecthesis" (Monothelites: Christ of 1 will)

615-618,619-625: Popes St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) and Boniface V: authorized by Heraclius

616: Syro-Hexaplar: Syriac translation of Origen's Hexapla Septuagint; Aethelfrith defeats Welsh at Chester, cutting of Wales from northern Britain

617-698: Tibet is first unified under King Songtsen Gampo and his successors. Tibet was one of the mightiest powers of Asia for the three centuries that followed, as a pillar inscription at the foot of the Potala Palace in Lhasa and Chinese Tang histories of the period confirm.

618-907: Tang dynasty of China: included Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Turkistan

619: Suan-Ching: "10 Classics", textbooks used for Chinese exams

622 Jul 16: Muhammad (born c570) Arab prophet, founded Islam (Qur'an revealed) and established following at Medina (Yathrib) 622 A.D. is year 1 in Muslim lunar calendar: Hijra (Hegira) (A.H.=Anno Hegirae). [Start of 1260 'days', 3 1/2 'years', or 42 'months' of Biblical prophetic cycle], married widow Khadija his benefactor, 1st follower, and 1st wife in 595, Mt.Hira vision in 610, began preaching at Mecca in 613, earliest records of some of his teachings is 615, 'flight' from Mecca, established following at Medina (Yathrib) in 622 Jul 16 = year 1 in Muslim lunar calendar: Hijra (Hegira) (a.h.=anno hegirae), married 3rd wife Aisha daughter of Abu Bekr in 624, wrote to rulers of world in 627 (According to a tradition, Muhammad sent from Medina letters of friendship, proclaiming His prophethood, to: the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, the Persian Emperor, the King of Abyssinia, the Governor of Egypt, the King of Hira, the Duke of Yemen, and to the Emperor of China -Tang Dynasty), captured Mecca in Jihad (Holy War) in 628 [beginning of 1,335 'days' prophecy]

625-638: Pope Honorius I: condemned at 6th Ecumenical in 680 (Monothelites)

625: Paulinus of Rome began conversion of Northumbria (Britain) to Roman Catholicism; Brahmagupta: Indian mathematician, taught at Ujjain

626-633: King Edwin of Northumbria, Britain: founded Edinburgh, advocated Roman Catholicism

628-641: Jomei: Japanese Emperor

632 Jun 7: Muhammad, founder of Islam, passes away

632-633: Welsh invasion of Northumbria defeated: end of effective British challenge to Anglo-Saxons; after this date, Celtic missionaries are active in most of the Anglo-Saxon territory of Britain

632-651: Yazdigird III: last Sasanian Emperor of Persia, invaded by Islam in 642

632-661: Abul-Hasan, Ali al-Murtadha (born in 600), son of Abu Talib, becomes the 1st Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam and the 4th Islamic Caliph in 656

632-634: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, b.573, 1st Islamic Caliph, capital at Medina: Collection and collation of the Quran is achieved.  Byzantine Empire causes trouble and 4 seperate armies are defeated.

632: East Anglia converted to Roman Catholicism, in 635 Wessex, in 636 Ireland

634-644: Umar Al-Faruq, 2nd Islamic Caliph, in 634 conquered Syria, in 638 Jerusalem, in 639 Egypt, in 642 Persia; assassinated

637-655: Clovis II rules France

640 Pope Severinus; Library of Alexandria: "The Center of Western Culture," with 300,000 ancient papyrus scrolls, is completely destroyed by Arab conquerors

640-642: Pope John IV

642-649: Pope Theodore I

644-656: Uthman Al-Ghani becomes 3rd Islamic Caliph, assassinated: Vast areas of North Africa, including Cyprus, Morocco, Tripoli and Tunisia, are brought under Islamic rule.  Constantine, Byzantine Emperor, attacks Alexandria with a naval fleet of 6,000 men but is defeated by a Muslim naval force.

Expansion of Islam (632-1000 AD)

The expansion of Islam from 632 to 1000 AD

649-655: Pope St. Martin

655-668: Clothaire III rules France

655-657: Pope St. Eugene I

656-661: Abul-Hasan, Ali al-Murtadha becomes the 4th Islamic Caliph: fatally wounded by the poisoned sword of Ibn Muljam while engaged in prayers at the Mosque of Kufah (Iraq), died two days later, and was buried at al-Najaf (Iraq). During Ali's reign as Caliph, the once mighty Muslim army is mostly involved with solving internal clashes. The Muslim Ummah (community) is seriously divided, groupings develop and mutual trust and confidence are undermined.

657-672: Pope St. Vitalian

c660: Organ first used in church services

661-670: Abu Muhammad, Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (born in 625), son of Ali, becomes the 2nd Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in Medina by the order of Caliph Muawiyah

661-680: Muawiyah rules as Islamic Caliph and founds the Umayyad dynasty: Damascus becomes new Islamic capital; in 666 Muawiya tried to change the 'Point of Adoration' from Mecca to Damascus

668-674: Childeric II rules France

670-680: Abu Abdillah, Al-Husain Sayyid al-Shuhadaa (born in 626), son of Ali, becomes the 3rd Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: martyred with his sons (except one), relatives, and companions in Karbala (Iraq) by order of Caliph Yazid I. He and his elder brother, Al-Hasan, were sons of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad.

672-676: Pope Aedodatus II

674-691: Thierry III rules France

676-678-681: Popes Donus and St. Agatho

679: Bulgar Khanate founded

680-683: Yazid I rules as Islamic Caliph and defeats Ali'Ss son Al-Husain and his followers at Kerbela on the 10th of October, 680 AD (19 years after Ali's death): religious holiday of Shi'ah (Shi'ites)

680-712/713: Abu Muhammad, Ali Zain al-Abideen (born in 659), son of al-Husain, became the 4th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in Medina by the order of Caliph Husham Ibn Abdul-Malik.

682-683/684-685: Popes St. Leo II and St. Benedict II

685-705: Caliph Husham Ibn Abdul-Malik rules as Islamic Caliph: builds the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem in 691 on site of the First and Second Temples

685-686-687-701: Popes John V, Conon, and St. Sergius I

691-695: Clovis III rules France

695-711: Childebert II rules France

700-1731: Mississippian Culture in North America flourishes

701-705: Pope John VI

705-715: Walid I rules as Islamic Caliph

705-707/708-715: Popes John VII, Sisinnius, and Constantine

710-782: Nara period in Japan: fusion of Buddhism and Shinto

711: Spain and Western India are conquered by the Muslims

711-716: Dagobert III rules France

713/714-733: Abu Ja'far, Muhammad al-Baqir (born in 677), son of Ali, became the 5th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned by Ibrahim in Medina.

715-731: Pope St. Gregory II

716: St. Boniface leaves England on 1st mission to Frisia

716-721: Chilperic II rules France

721-737: Thierry IV rules France

725: Emperor Leo III forbids veneration of sacred images; "Beowulf", an Anglo-Saxon epic poem written

731-741: Pope St. Gregory III

732: Muslims defeated near Potiers, France by Frankish leader Charles Martel who prevents further Islamic encroachment into Western Europe

Frankish Empire

Frankish Empire

733-765: Abu Abdillah, Ja'far al-Sadiq (born in 702), son of Muhammad, became the 6th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in Medina by the order of Caliph al-Mansoor.

c738: Arab merchant colony established at Canton, China

740: Muslims establish colony at Kilwa in East Africa

741-752: Pope St. Zachary

743-751: Childeric III rules France

750: Islamic Umayyad dynasty, under Marwan II, falls to Abbasid dynasty: Baghdad is founded in 762 (By 800 it is the greatest city in the expanding Islamic world) and becomes the new capital of the Abbasid dynasty

750-754: Abu'l-Abbas rules as Islamic Caliph

c750-850: The Shari'ah, Islamic System Of Law, is developed.

751-768: Pepin I elected and annointed King of the Franks, establishing Carolingian line

751: Fall of Ravenna to Lombards marks downfall of Byzantine Empire in Italy

752-757: Popes Stephen II and Stephen III

754-775: Al-Mansoor rules as Islamic Caliph

755-798: Trisonog Detsen assumed power in Tibet. Like Songtsen Gampo, Trisong Detsen was a patron of Buddhism. He invited Indian pandits like Shantarakshita to Tibet, who together with Padmasambhava constructed Tibet's first monastery at Samye. Seven Tibetans were initiated into monkhood on an experimental basis. They were Tibet's first Buddhist monks, and a large number of Buddhist texts from India were translated into the Tibetan language.

756: Last member of Islamic Umayyad dynasty, Abdurrahman, founds Emirate of Cordoba in Spain

757-767-772: Popes St. Paul I and Stephen IV

763: Tibet's repeated battles with the Chinese increased tension between the two countries to the point where Trisong Detsen ordered 200,000 men to proceed from A-sha against China. After defeating the Chinese army stationed at the border, the victorious Tibetans proceeded to the Chinese capital, Ch'ang-an (present-day Xian in Shaanxi province) and Chinese emperor Tai-Tsung fled the capital

763-804: Chinese emperor Tai-Tsung ruled

765-799: Abul-Hasan al-Awwal, Musa al-Kadhim (born in 746), son of Ja'far, becomes the 7th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in the prison of Caliph Haroon al-Rashid in Baghdad and was buried at al-Kadhimiyyah, near Baghdad (Iraq).

768-814: Charlemagne rules France and Western Germany: crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 by pope Leo III (Holy Roman Empire lasts until 1806)

772-795: Pope Adrian I

779-821: St. Benedict of Aniane leads reform of Benedictine monastaries in France

783: Peace negotiations between Tibet and China took place resulting in the treaty of Ch'ing-shui, which established the boundary between the two coun-tries. In general, all lands in the Kokonor region west of T'ao-chou and the Tatu river were ceded to Tibet

786-809: Haroon al-Rashid rules as Islamic Caliph ("Tales of The Thousand and One Nights")

788: Morocco becomes independent under Idrisid dynasty

790: Tibetans were able to recapture the four garrison towns in Turkestan from which they bad been driven by the Chinese imperial forces in 694. The Tibetan army advanced westward to the Pamirs and even reached the Oxus River and a lake to the north of the Oxus River, Al-Tubbat, which means the 'little Tibetan lake'. A few years later, the Arabian Caliph, Haroon al-Rashid, aware that the Tibetans were becoming too powerful, allied himself with the Chinese in order to keep the Tibetans in check. Attacked by the allied forces of the Chinese and Arabs, the Tibetans succeeded in holding their own without substantial loss of territory, in spite of considerable defeats

794-1192: Heinan period in Japan

795-816: Pope St. Leo III

799: Tunisia becomes independent under Aghlabid dynasty

799-818: Abul-Hasan al-Thani, Ali al-Ridha (born in 765), son of Musa, becomes the 8th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in Mash'had (Khurasan, Iran) by the order of Caliph al-Ma'moon.

800-1432: The Angkor Kingdom emerges as the dominant empire in Southeast Asia, ruled by a succession of temple-building Khmer kings from their capital near present-day Siem Reap

806-841: Tri Ralpachen ruled Tibet: After coming to the throne, Ralpachen sent troops towards the Chinese border. Buddhists in Tibet and China sought mediation and finally both countries sent representatives to the border. A peace treaty was concluded in 821. The text of the treaty was inscribed on three pillars. One was erected outside the Chinese emperor's palace-gate in Ch'ang-an, (present-day Xian in Shaanxi province) in 821, another in front of the main gate of the Jokhang in Lhasa in 822, and the third on the boundary between the two countries at Gugu Meru in 823. At the time of swearing to uphold the terms of the treaty, religious ceremonies were performed, including the Buddhist ritual of invoking the Three Jewels and the sun, moon and stars as witnesses.

The treaty reaffirmed the boundaries established by the 783 treaty of Ch'ing-shui and restored the formal relationship of mutual respect and friendship. The stone pillar in Lhasa was erected in 822. The west face of the pillar bears an inscription of the treaty in both Tibetan and Chinese. The east side bears an edict summarising the state of Sino-Tibetan relations. The north side gives the names of the seventeen Tibetan officials who participated in making the treaty and the south side gives those of the eighteen Chinese officials. 

The pillar in Lhasa still stands to this day. The treaty makes the solemn pledge: "Tibet and China shall guard the present border and the territory over which they each hold sway. All to the east of the present boundary is the domain of Great China. All to the west is totally the domain of Great Tibet...Tibetans shall be happy in the land of Tibet, Chinese shall be happy in the land of China."

813-833: Al-Ma'moon rules as Islamic Caliph: the 'golden age' of science and learning.

814-840: Louis the Pious rules most of Charlemagne's realm except for Acquitane, Alamania, and Bavaria

816-817-824-827: Popes Stephen V, St. Paschal I, and Eugene II

818-835: Abu Ja'far al-Thani, Muhammad al-Taqi al-Jawad (born in 811), son of Ali, becomes the 9th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned by the order of Caliph Mu'tasim in Baghdad and was buried near his grandfather at al-Kazimiyyah.

825: The Muslim Aghlabids start the conquest of Sicily, Italy

827-844: Popes Valentine and Gregory IV

830-906: State of Moravia is established

835-868: Abul-Hasan al-Thalith, Ali al-Naqi al-Hadi (born in 827), son of Muhammad, becomes the 10th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned in Samirra (Iraq) by the order of Mutawakkil.

840-877: Charles I, the Bald rules France

843: Council of Constantinople restores image veneration

844-847-855-858-867: Popes Sergius II, St. Leo IV, Benedict III, and St. Nicholas I, the Great

862: In Russia, the Principality of Novgorod is founded

864: In Russia, the Principality of Kiev is founded

867-1056: Macedonian dynasty rules Byzantine empire

867-872: Pope Adrian II

868-874: Abu Muhammad, Al-Hasan al-Askari (born in 846), son of Ali, becomes the 11th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: poisoned by Mu'tamid in Samirra (Iraq).

872: The first hospital in Egypt was opened and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the Islamic Empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia.

872-882: Pope John VIII

874: Abul-Qasim, Muhammad al-Mahdi (born in 869), son of al-Hasan, becomes the 12th Imam of Shi'ah sect of Islam: subsequently disappears; beginning of 'Babs' (Gates of God) that reveal the will of the 12th Imam in hiding: 260 Anno Hegirae (A.H.) according to the Islamic calender

877-879: Louis II, the Stammerer, rules France

879-882: Louis III rules France

882: Oleg the wise unites Kievian Rus into single state

882-884: Carloman rules France; Pope Marinus I

884-885: Pope St. Adrian III

884-888: Charles II, the Fat, rules France

885-891: Pope Stephen VI

888-898: Odo, count of Paris rules France

891-896-897: Popes Formosus, Boniface VI, and Stephen VII

896-907: 7 Magyar tribes are united under the Arpad dynasty forming Hungary (until 1301)

897: Popes Romanus and Theodore II

898-900: Pope John IX

898-929: Charles III, the Simple, rules France

c900: Salerno becomes a prominent medical centre

900-903-904-911: Popes Benedict IV, Leo V, and Sergius III

907-960: Period of the 5 dynasties in China

910: The Shi'ah (Shiites) Fatimids conquer North Africa and rule as Caliphs

911: Founding of duchy of Normandy by Norse leader Rollo

911-913: Pope Anastasius III

c912: Bulgars along Volga river become Muslims

913-914-928: Popes Lando and John X

925: Tomislav was crowned as King of an independent Croatia

928/929-931-935/936-939: Popes Leo VI, Stephen VIII, John XI, and Leo VII

936-954: Louis IV, the Foreigner rules France

939-942: Pope Stephen IX

941: Last of the Islamic Shi'ah 'Babs' (Gates of God) dies without naming a successor

942-946: Pope Marinus II

945: Persian Buyids take Baghdad and control the Islamic Caliphate

946-955: Pope Agapetus II

954-986: Lothaire rules France

955-963: Pope John XII

960-1127: Northern Sung dynasty in China

962: Emperor Otto I rules Germany (Holy Roman Empire): in 963, in controversy with the papacy, he institutes pope's oath of fidelity to emperor before consecration; The Islamic Caliphate of Cordoba is established in Spain

963-964-965-972: Popes Leo VIII, Benedict V, and John XIII

966: Miezko I of Poland converts to Christianity

969-1171: Fatimids (descendants of Prophet Mohammed's daughter Fatima and Ali) rule Egypt and establish Cairo as their capital

970: The Seljuk Turks becomes Muslims and conquer most of Persia; The Islamic University of Al-Azhar is founded in Cairo, Egypt. It is the world's oldest university.

973: In Provence, France Count William, the Liberator, defeated and expelled the Saracens (Muslims). From their fortress, the Saracens had been raiding the surrounding area for two hundred years. During their stay, the Saracens taught the local people about medicine and how to use pine resin and cork-oak bark.

973-974-983-984/985-996: Popes Benedict VI, Benedict VII, John XIV, and John XV

986-987: Louis V rules France

987-996: Hugh Capet (Capetians) was elected and crowned king of the Franks

988: Vladimir I accepts Eastern Orthodoxy as official religion of Russia

996-1031: Robert II, the Pious rules France

996-999: Pope Gregory V

998-1030: Mahmud the Great of Ghazni rules Western Turkestan

999-1003: Pope Sylvester II

c1000: Scandinavia and Hungary are converted to Christianity; 'Vinland' is discovered by Vikings; Arabs overthrown by the Turks; Lahore (now in Pakistan) becomes an important centre of Islamic culture

1000: Christian "Jubilee" (Beginning of 2nd Millennium of Christian Era)

1003-1009-1012: Popes John XVII, John XVIII, and Sergius IV

1010: The ruler of Gao, on the middle Niger river, converts to Islam

1012-1024: Pope Benedict VIII

1017-1035: King Canute the Great of Denmark becomes King of England

1024-1032: Pope John XIX

1030: The Umayyad Caliphate of Spain breaks up into smaller kingdoms

1031-1060: Henry I rules France

1032-1045-1046-1047-1048/1049-1054: Popes Benedict IX (three times), Sylvester III, Gregory VI, Clement II, Damasus II, and St. Leo IX

1054: 'Great Schism' between the Eastern Orthodox churches and the Western Roman Catholic church; Croatia becomes a Catholic country

1055: Seljuk Turks seize Baghdad but retain the Abbasids as Caliphs

1055-1057-1058-1061: Popes Victor II, Stephen X, and Nicholas II

1059: Pope Nicholas II decrees that Pope henceforth to be elected by cardinals

1059-1078: Dukas dynasty rules Byzantine empire

1060-1108: Phillip I rules France

1061-1073: Pope Alexander II

1061-1091: Normans conquer Sicily

1066: Battle of Hastings: William Duke of Normandy conquers England

1071: Battle of Manzikert is which Seljuk Turks take Asia Minor (Turkey) from the Byzantine Empire

1073-1085: Pope St. Gregory VII

1080: Under the leadership of Ruben (Rubenid dynasty), the Kingdom of Cilicia or Lesser Armenia is founded

1081-1185: Comneni dynasty rules Byzantine empire

1085: Christian conquest of Toledo: Rodrigo Diaz becomes 'El Cid' beginning 'Reconquista'

1086-1087: Pope Victor III

1087: Muslims build Timbuktu as great center of learning and commerce

1088: University of Bologna in Italy founded

1088-1099: Pope Urban II

1095-1291: 10 Crusades, 1st called by Pope Urban II, to restore Asia Minor to Byzantium to Catholicism and conquer the Holy Land from the Islamic Turks

1096: First Crusade begins

1096-1215: 1st general persecution of Jews take place

1099-1118: Pope Paschal II

1099: First Crusade ends and Jerusalem is captured

1099-1187: Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem

Crusader States around 1100 AD

1100: Henry I of England forced to sign Charter of Liberties

1102: King of Hungary becomes King of Croatia thereby ending Croatian independence by which he is represented by a "ban"

1108-1137: Louis VI, the Fat rules France

1112-1152: King Suryavarman II builds the temple of Angkor Wat and dedicates it to the Hindu God Vishnu. Its central tower symbolizes the mythical Mount Meru, supposedly located at the centre of the Universe. Its outer walls stand for the mountains at the edge of the Earth. Beyond the walls is a surrounding moat representing the oceans beyond the Earth.

1118-1119-1124: Popes Gelasius II and Callistus II

1118: The Order of the Knights Templar is formed by a band of 9 knights

1120: The Knights of St. John Order is established: HQ were in Jerusalem, Cyprus in 1291, Rhodes in 1309, and Malta in 1530

1124-1130: Pope Honorius II

1127-1279: Southern Sung dynasty in China

1128: Hughues de Payen and Andre De Montbard travel back to France.  The Order of the Knights Templar is officially recognized and awarded its own Holy Rule with the help of Bernard Of Clairvaux.  The Order begins to recruit.

1130-1143: Pope Innocent II

1130: Hughues de Payen returns to Jerusalem.  At this point over 300 knights have joined the Order of the Knights Templar.

1136: Templars first established in the Amanus March, North of Antioch.

1137-1180: Louis VII rules France

1138-1193: Life of Saladin, Governor of Egypt. He was the adversary of Richard the Lion Heart in the Crusades. He was eventually victorious over Richard the Lion Heart, and is still a role model of Islamic chivalry.

1139: Alfonso I proclaims himself king of Portugal

1143-1144-1145-1153: Popes Celestine II, Lucius II, and  Eugene III

1145: Zengi captures Edessa from the Crusaders.

1146: Bernard of Clairvaux instrumental in preaching the Second Crusade, which sets out the same year under the command of King Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany.  130 Knights Templar are among the expedition and earn their reputation as a formidable fighting force.

1148: Second Crusade is wiped out in an attempt to capture Damascus.

1151-1196: Stephen Nemanja unites Serbian tribes and establishes Serbian Empire

1153-1154-1159: Popes Anastasius IV and Adrian IV

1153: Ashqelon captured by the Crusaders.

1154-1399: The House of Anjou-Plantagenet rules England

1159-1181: Pope Alexander III

1160: Statutes on Hierarchy, conventional life, the holding of the Chapters and the penances added to the Holy Rule for Knights Templar.

1165: The Order of the Knights Templar is firmly established in Palestine and in Europe.

1167: Oxford University founded in England

1167: Venice forms Lomabard league of Northern Italian cities

1170: Thomas á Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury murdered by Knight of King Henry II

1171: Saladin conquers Fatimid Caliphate and re-establishes Sunni Islam

1173: Murder of Assassin envoy by the Templars.

1177: The Angkor capital is sacked by the Chams, invaders from southern Vietnam

1180-1223: Philip II, Augustus rules France

1181-1185-1187: Popes Lucius III and Urban III

1181-1201: The new Khmer king Jayavarman VII introduces Buddhism and mobilizes the million inhabitants of his capital to build more than a dozen major new temples and scores of schools and hospitals. Like his predecessors, he relies on slave labourers to finish the building spree in his lifetime.

1185-1204: Angeli dynasty rules Byzantine empire

1186: 2nd Greater Bulgarian Empire is established

1187: Battle of Hattin: Saladin reconquers Jerusalem; Pope Gregory VIII preaches the Third Crusade.

1187-1191: Pope Clement III

1189-1199: Richard I the Lion-Heart rules England

1189: The Third Crusade under the command of Frederick Barbarossa ends in complete failure.

1190: King Richard the Lionheart and Philip II recapture Acre and Jaffa but fail to relieve Jerusalem.  Again, the Templars play a strong role in this Crusade; First windmills in Europe

1191-1198: Pope Celestine III

1191: Templars establish new headquarters at Acre.

1192-1333: Kamakura Shogunate in Japan

1192: The Templars occupy Cyprus.  Richard I enters a treaty with Saladin and Christian Pilgrims are allowed to enter Jerusalem.  Templars begin fighting intermittent war with Leo of Armenia over the Amanus March which lasts for 29 years.

1196-1227: Genghis Khan became supreme ruler of all Mongols (Tartars) and conquers large parts of Asia

Mongol Empire (1200 to 1480 AD)

The Mongol Empire from 1200 to 1480 AD

1198: The Teutonic Knights Order is established; Fourth Crusade preached - again, it ends in fiasco getting only as far as Constantinople, never to reach the Holy Land.

1198-1216: Pope Innocent III

c1200: Poem of "El Cid" is written in Castile

1204-1261: Conquest of Constantinople by crusaders and establishment of Latin empire

1206-1526: Sultanate of Delhi

1207-1208: Order of St. Francis established

1209: Cambridge University founded; Jews expelled from England

1209-1229: Albigensian wars in southern France

1215: Magna Carta signed

1216: Founded by Saint Dominic, the Dominican Order took shape during a series of chapters held in Bologna which ended in 1221. They are the first Catholic Order to concentrate on intellectual work instead of manual labor. The Dominicans' especial devotion is to teaching. Following the theological lead of St. Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas Aquinas, the Dominicans adapted the works of Aristotle to the service of Christianity.

1216-1227: Pope Honorius III

1217: Templars begin building the Castle of 'Atlit.

1218: Fifth Crusade preached.

1220-1431: Khmer Empire in decline. Angkor is sacked in 1351 and 1431 by Thai invaders.

1221: Mongols (Tartars) ravage Persia

1223-1226: Louis VIII, the Lion rules France

1225-1274: Thomas Aquinas writes: "Summa contra Gentiles", "Summa Theologica", and "De Regemine Principum"

1226-1270: Louis IX (St. Louis) rules France

1227-1241: Gregory IX

1228: Crusade of Frederick II manages to liberate Jerusalem by use of a treaty rather than brute force.  Templars re-instate their headquarters on the Temple of the Mount in Jerusalem; City state of Florence in Italy establishes democratic constitution

1229-1241: The Great Mongol Khan Ugudei rules Northern China

1230: Spanish kingdoms of Leon and Castile are united

c1235: African state of Mali established

1236-1255: Batu (Grandson of Genghis Khan) along with Subutai rules western Asia

1241: Mongols (Tartars) invade Poland; Pope Celestine IV

1243-1254: Pope Innocent IV

1244: Battle of La Forbie.  Jerusalem is lost once again - Frederick II blames the Templars for antagonizing the Sultan of Egypt into war.

1245: Mongols (Tartars) control Russia

1248: Crusade of St. Louis

1250: State of Lithuania is created; Crusader battle of Mansurah

1251: The Golden Horde established

1253-1349: Tibet is ruled by a succession of twenty ministers of Sakya after the accession of Chogyal Phag-ca

1254-1261: Pope Alexander IV

1258: Islamic Abbasid dynasty falls to Mongol (Tartars): Baghdad is conquered and destroyed (The city was systematically looted, destroyed and burnt. Eight hundred thousand persons are said to have been killed. The Caliph was sewn up in a sack and trampled to death under the feet of Mongol horses)

1260: The Mamluk sultanate (rules Palestine from 1291-1516) controls Egypt and Syria and stop Mongols (Tartars) at Goliath's Well; the Shroud of Turin has been estimated to date from approximately this year (1988 Vatican sponsored scientific study)

1260-1294: Kublai Khan rules China

1261-1453: Paleologi dynasty rules Byzantine empire

1261-1264: Pope Urban IV

c1265-1324: Marco Polo (born in 1254) travels throughout Asia: in 1292 discovers a Muslim kingdom on Sumatra (Srivijaya)?

1265-1268: Pope Clement IV

1266: Templar stronghold of Safad falls to the Mameluks.

1268: Catalan Rule of the Templars.

1270-1285: Phillip III, the Bold rules France

1271-1276: Pope Gregory X

1274: Philippe III, the Bold ceded Le Comtat, France to Pope Gregory X. On 14 Sept 1792, the territory was reunited with France. The Comtat's capital was Carpentras.

1276-1277-1280/1281-1285: Popes Innocent V, Adrian V, John XXI, Nicholas III, and Martin IV

1282: Sicilians revolt against Charles of Anjou: Peter of Aragon becomes their King

c1285: Eyeglasses made in Northern Italy

1285-1287: Pope Honorius IV

1285-1314: Phillip IV, the Fair rules France

1288-1292: Pope Nicholas IV

1291: Fall of Acre and Jerusalem to the Mameluks.  Templars are forced to evacuate Tortosa and 'Atlit; Swiss Confederation established

1294-1303: Popes St. Celestine V and Boniface VIII

1295: Ghazan Khan, Mongol (Tartar) ruler of Persia, converts to Islam

1297: Popular uprising in Scotland against England under Sir William Wallace ("Braveheart")

1301: Ottoman (Turkish) Empire is established by Osman I

1302: Philip IV convenes first 'Estates-Generale' in France at which all 3 'estates' (classes) are represented; Loss of Ruad and massacre of the Templars garrison.

1303-1304/1305-1314: Popes Benedict XI and Clement V (in Avignon from 1309-1314)

1306: Arrest of the Templars in France on Friday 13th August.

1309-1377: Papacy transferred to Avignon, France

1310: 54 Templars burnt in Paris as heretics.

1312: The Order of the Knights Templar is formerly abolished.  All Templar property is handed over to The Knights Hospitaller.

1314-1316: Louis X rules France

1314: Jaques de Molay and Geoffrey de Charney are burnt at the stake.

1316-1322: Phillip V, the Tall rules France

1316-1334: Pope John XXII (in Avignon)

1321: Dante completes the "Divina Commedia"

1322-1328: Charles IV, the Fair rules France

1325: Establishment of Tenochttitlan in central Mexico by Aztecs

1328-1350: Phillip VI establishes the House of Valois and rules France

1328: Ivan I becomes Grand Prince of Moscow

c1330: Greatest extension of Delhi Sultanate under Mohammed Ibn Tughluk (1325-1351)

1334-1342: Pope Benedict XII (in Avignon)

1337-1453: Hundred years war between France and England

1338-1573: Ashikaga Shogunate rules Japan

1342-1352: Pope Clement VI (in Avignon)

1345: Ibn Battuta, an Arab Explorer, travels to Malaya

1347-1354: 'Black Death': Bubonic Plague

1349-1497: Tibet is ruled by a succession of nine lamas of the Phagmo Drupa lineage

c1350: Thailand (Siam) is united; English begins to emerge as the national language of England

1350-1364: John II, the Good rules France

1352-1362: Pope Innocent VI (in Avignon)

1354: Earliest extant documentation stating the existance of the Shroud of Turin

1362-1370: Pope Urban V (in Avignon)

1364-1380: Charles V, the Wise rules France

1368-1644: Ming dynasty rules China

1370: Height of Hanseatic League's power

1370-1378: Pope Gregory XI (in Avignon, returned Papacy to Rome in 1377)

1375: The Kingdom of Cilicia (Lesser Armenia) falls to the Mamelukes of Egypt. The last monarch, King Levon VI, died at Calais, France in 1393

1378-1389: Pope Urban VI

1379: Tamerlane invades Persia from the north

c1380: First translation of Bible into English

1380-1422: Charles VI, the Fool rules France

1381: Venice is victorious over Genoa in Italy and extends the 'Terra Firma' in rivalry with Milan

1386: Lithuania is united with Poland: greatest extend of Poland-Lithuania

c1387: Chaucer begins "Canterbury Tales"

1389: Battle of Kossovo ("Field of the Blackbirds") between Serbia and Ottoman empire ends Serbian independence, the Serbs consider Kossovo their ancestral homeland. Despite the loss, "Kosovo Polje," as it is known, is celebrated in Serbian folklore and remains a symbol for ethnic pride

1389-1404: Pope Boniface IX

1394: Jews expelled from France

1399-1485: House of Lancaster dynasty rules England

1405-1406-1415: Popes Innocent VII and Gregory XII

1415: Battle of Agincourt in France with victory of Henry V of England

1417-1431: Pope Martin V

1419: Portuguese explorers reach the Madeiras

1422-1461: Charles VII, the Victorious rules France

1431: Portuguese explorers reach the Azores; St. Joan of Arc burned at the stake in Rouen, France; Khmer kings abandon Angkor and move their capital southward to Phnom Penh

1431-1447: Pope Eugene IV

1436: Uprising to drive out Toltecs in Yucatan by Maya: Maya emigrate back to Guatemala

1438: Inca Empire established

1445: Portuguese explorers reach Cape Verde; Guttenberg invents printing press and the first mass produced book is the Bible

1447-1455: Pope Nicholas V

1452-1519: Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Genius, Leonardo was one of the greatest artists of the Italian Renaissance and the greatest experimental scientist of his age. Leonardo was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician and art critic who displayed genius in almost all the arts and sciences. His studies of anatomy and mechanical devices show that he had a knowledge far beyond his own time.

1453: Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks

1445-1458: Pope Callistus III

1455-1485: English War of the Roses between the house of Lancaster and York

1458-1464: Pope Pius II

1460-1591: Songhai Empire flourishes: the Songhai Empire was founded by Sonni Ali of Gao

1461-1483: Louis XI, the Spider rules France

1462-1505: Ivan III becomes Tsar of Russia

Go to Top

1462-1492: Lorenzo the Magnificent rules Florence: Botticelli and Michelangelo work at his court

1464-1471: Pope Paul II

1470: Inca destroy Chimu state

1471-1484: Pope Sixtus IV

1475-1564: Michelangelo the artist/inventor

1478-1573: Sengoku Period in Japan

1479: Spanish kingdoms of Castille and Aragon are united

1482: Portuguese explorers reach the mouth of the Congo river

1483-1498: Charles VIII rules France

1484-1492: Pope Innocent VIII

1485-1603: House of Tudor dynasty rules England

1490: King Nzinga Nkuwu of the Congo Kingdom accepts Christianity

1492: Christopher Columbus discovers the Americas for Spain; Spanish 'Reconquista' of Iberian Peninsula completed with conquest of Granada: Jewish and Muslim expulsion

1492-1527: Reign of Askia Mohammed in Songha

1492-1503: Pope Alexander VI: In 1494 he partitions world into Spanish and Portuguese spheres of exploration and colonization

1496: Jews expelled from Portugal

1497: Bartholemew Diaz circumnavigates the Cape of Good Hope; John Cabot sails from Bristol, England and reaches Newfoundland, Canada

1498: Vasco de Gama finds the sea route to India

1498-1515: Louis XII, "Father of his People" rules France

1498-1565: Tibet is ruled for four generations by the Rinpung kings

1499: The Swiss Confederation is granted independence from the Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Basle

1500: The pocket watch is invented; Gaspar Corte-Real reaches Newfoundland and calls it Terra Verde; Juan de la Cosa prints first map of the New World (North and South America)

1500-1524: Ismail I is first Shah of Shi'ah Persian Empire

1502-1520: Montezuma II rules Aztec Empire

1503-1513-1521: Popes Pius III , Julius II, and Leo X

1515-1547: Francis I rules France

1517: Martin Luther posts 95 theses on the church at Wittenburg beginning the Reformation movement; Ottoman Turks under Sultan Salim conquer Egypt and Palestine; destruction of the Templar archive in Cyprus by the Ottoman Empire.

1519-1556: Charles V rules Spain

1519: The horse is introduced to North America by Spanish

1520-1566: Suleiman II, the Magnificent, rules Ottoman Empire

1521: Conquest of Aztec Empire by Spanish

1522-1523-1534: Popes Adrian VI and Clement VII

1523: Sweden becomes independent

1524: Giovanni da Verrazzano and Esteven Gomez explore Atlantic coast for France and Spain

1526-1658: Mogul Empire in India founded by Babur and Islam spreads

1526-1527: A part of Croatia falls under Ottoman rule, the rest is annexed to Austria

1527: In Canada, John Rut explores Labrador coast

Inca Empire circa 1532

1533: Conquest of Inca Empire by Spanish

1533-1584: William of Orange leads fight for Dutch Independence

1534: In Canada, Jacques Cartier sights Prince Edward Island and explores Gulf of St. Lawrence and Gaspé coast

1534-1549: Pope Paul III

1535: In Canada, Cartier reaches Stadacona (Quebec) and Hochelaga (Montreal)

1538: Ottoman Turks conquer Hejaz

1541: In Canada, Roberval's colony at Cap-Rouge survives one year

1543: Nicholas Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth revolves around the Sun

1544: In Canada, Basques establish whaling posts on Gulf of St. Lawrence

1547: Ivan IV the Terrible becomes Tsar of Russia

1547-1559: Henry II rules France

1550: A Muslim kingdom is established in Sumatra. From here, Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas and Borneo

1550-1555-1559: Popes Julius III, Marcellus II, and Paul IV

1556-1598: Phillip II rules Spain

1559-1560: Francis II rules France

1559-1565: Pope Pius IV

1560-1574: Charles IX rules France

1560: Tobacco introduced in Europe by Jean Nicot

1562-1598: Religious Wars in Europe

1564-1616: William Shakespeare, English Playwright, is generally achnowledged to be one of the most extraordinary writers in history. No other writer's plays have been produced so many times in so many countries. His creative power is one of the great feature of his genius, and to many people Hamlet, or King Lear seem far more real than historical characters like Caesar.

1564-1642: Galilei Galileo, Italian Scientist, was renowned for his epochmaking contribution to physics, astronomy, and scientific philosophy. He is regarded as the Chief founder of modern science. He developed the telescope, with which he found craters on the moon and the moons of Jupiter. Galileo was condemed by the Catholic Church for his view of the cosmos based on the theory of Copernicus.

1564: Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published

1566-1572: Pope St. Pius V

1566-1641: Tibet is ruled by three Tsangpa kings

1568-1648: Dutch War of Independence: 1581 marked the Declaration of Independence

1571: Battle of Lepanto in which the 'Holy League' defeated the Turks

1572-1585: Pope Gregory XIII

1573-1603: The Shogun-less age in Japan

1574-1589: Henry III rules France

1577: In Canada, Martin Frobisher explores coast of Labrador and Frobisher Bay

1579: Francis Drake claims west coast of North America for England and probably sights Vancouver Island

1580: Portugal is united with Spain: greatest extent of Spanish colonial empire

1583: Expansion of Islam to Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia; Humphrey Gilbert claims lands in 200-league radius of St. John's, Newfoundland for England in Canada

1585-1590: Pope Sixtus V

1587: In Canada, on 3rd attempt to find Northwest Passage, John Davis passes Hudson Strait

1588: Spanish Armada defeated by English

1589-1610: Henry IV establishes House of Bourbon and rules France

1590-1591: Popes Urban VII and Gregory XIV

1591: Ottoman Turks conquer Mesopotamia; Pope Innocent IX

1592: In Canada, Juan de Fuca, a greek, thought to have reached coast of British Columbia

1592-1605: Pope Clement VIII

1599: In Canada, Fort Tadoussac is founded by Pierre Chauvin, for the French: in 1600 his settlement weathers the winter and 5 out of 16 colonists survive

1603-1648: House of Stuarts dynasty rules England

1603-1867: Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan

1604: In Canada, De Monts, Poutrincourt, and Samuel de Champlain arrive in Acadia and build fort on île St. Croix

1605: In Canada, Acadian colony moves to Port-Royal; In America,Samuel de Champlain explores coast of New England

1605-1621: Popes Leo XI and Paul V

1606: In Canada, first water driven grist mill built at Port-Royal, Samuel de Champlain institutes the "Order of Good Cheer" at Port-Royal, and Marc Lescarbot writes and produces Le Théâtre de Neptune which is the first North American play

1607: Jamestown is founded by the English in America

1608: In Canada, Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec (Quebec City) for the French

1609: In Canada, Iroquois witness first use of firearms in skirmish with Champlain at Ticonderoga

1610-1643: Louis XIII rules France

1610: In Canada, Henry Hudson leads expedition to Hudson Bay and dies a year later marooned by his crew and John Guy establishes the first colony in Newfoundland at Cuper's Cove (Cupids)

1613-1762: Romanov dynasty rules Russia

1613: In Canada, Samuel Argall, commissioned to drive the French out of Acadia, destroys Port-Royal

1616: In Canada, Robert Bylot and William Baffin sail around Baffin Bay

1617: In Canada, Champlain brings Louis Hébert to Quebec as apothecary and farmer, the first settler and the first marriage recorded: Stephen Jonquest and Anne Hébert

1618-1648: Thirty Years War in Europe

1619: In Canada, Jens Munck, a Dane, winters at site of Churchill, Manitoba

1620: In America, English pilgrims (sailing on the 'Mayflower') settle in New England; In Canada, Recollets build Notre-Dame-des-Anges at Quebec

1621: In Canada, Privy Council charters William Alexander as proprietor of New Scotland (Nova Scotia)

1621-1623: Pope Gregory XV

1622: In Canada, Population of Quebec: 50; Etienne Brûlé reaches Lake Superior, North America

1623-1644: Pope Urban VIII

1625: In Canada, First Jesuit missionaries arrive at Quebec

1627: Cardinal Richelieu forms the "Company of Hundred Associates" to manage and colonize New France (Canada)

1628: In Canada, British lay siege to starving Quebec and Champlain is sent to England as a prisoner, first plow drawn by oxen used by Guillaumé Couillard, and first Scottish settlement established near Port Royal

1628-1658: Shah Jahan rules Mogul Empire in India: Taj Mahal built

1631: In Canada, Thomas James and Luke Foxe explore James Bay and Hudson Bay

1632: First Jesuit Relation published in France to publicize missions in North America

1633: In Canada, Champlain returns to Quebec and Brébeuf, Daniel, and Jesuits take over Recollet missions

1634: In Canada, first seigneury of Beaport granted to Robert Giffard; In America, Jean Nicollet explores Lake Michigan region

1635: In Canada, Jesuit College and library founded at Quebec

1636: In Canada, Montmagny arrives as first governor of New France and Father Gabriel Sagard publishes L'histoire du Canada with first Huron dictionary

1638: In Canada, Earthquake tremors recorded for six months from Montreal to the Gaspé peninsula

1639: In Canada, Jesuits found the mission Saint-Marie-among the-Hurons on Georgian Bay

1640: In Canada, first play acted at Quebec with Martial Piraube in lead role

1642-1648: English Civil War

1642: In Canada, Ville-Marie-de-Montréal (Montréal) is founded by the French (Maisonneuve), floods threaten Montréal, and Maisonneuve plants a cross on Mont Réal when waters subside

1642-1727: Sir Isaac Newton, English Scientist, Isaac Newton is one of the greatest names in the history of human thought. Newton invented a new kind of mathematics known as 'calculus'; discovered the secrets of light and color; and published a complete proof of the law of gravitation in his book "Principia". This law explained celestial motions, the tides, and terrestial gravitation, and is regarded as one of the greatest scientific achievements.

1642: The Fifth Great Dalai Lama assumed temporal power over the whole of Tibet, and the present form of Tibetan government (in-exile) known as Gaden Phodrang was established. Since then a succession of ten Dalai Lamas, and during their absence or minority lay or monk regents, have ruled Tibet (until 1949)

1643: In Canada, Iroquois war spreads north and Montréal lives under siege

1643-1715: Louis XIV, the Sun King rules France

1644-1911: Manchu dynasty rules China

1644: In Canada, Marguerite Bourgeoys obtains land grant for nuns of the Congrégation de Notre-Dame and  D'Aulany-La Tour feud ends with sacking of Fort La Tour

1644-1655: Pope Innocent X

1645: In Canada, trade and colonizing rights transfered to the Community of Habitants

1646: In Canada, Cornielle's play Le Cid performed at Quebec

1647: In Canada, Council of New France formed

1648: In Canada, first child of European descent, Barbe Meusnier, born in Montreal, Jacques Brisson opens first licensed tavern in Quebec, and Iroquois-Huron war breaks out with renewed fury

1649: In Canada, Brébeuf and Lalément killed, Jesuits abandon Saint-Marie, and first public execution: 16 year female thief

1649-1660: Oliver Cromwell's 'Commonwealth' rules England

1652: Cape Town, South Africa is founded

1654: In Canada, English expedition captures Fort La Tour and Acadia

1655-1667: Pope Alexander VII

1657: First pendulum clock is invented

1658: In Canada, Marguerite Bourgeoys opens first school in Montreal stable

1659: In Canada, François de Laval arrives as Bishop of New France; Radisson and Groseilliers trek to Lake Superior and Hudson Bay, North America

1660-1688: Stuart dynasty rules England

1660: In Canada, Adam Dollard des Ormeaux and small force of defenders decimated at the Long Sault

1661-1715: Louis XIV rules France

1662: In Canada, French settlement started at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

1663: Louis XIV revokes private charters, making New France (Canada) a royal province in French North America and Bishop Laval founds Quebec Seminary (Laval University)

1665: In Canada, Jean Talon appointed Intendant, Carignan-Salières regiment arrives to defend New France, and the first "King's Daughters" arrive as brides for settlers

1666: In Canada, first Census of New France: total population is 3,215

1667: In Canada, civil courts are established

1667-1669: Pope Clement IX

1668: In Canada, First brewery built by Talon at Quebec

1670: In Canada, Hudon's Bay Company chartered, Prince Rupert named governor of lands around Hudson and James Bays, and coal is first discovered and mined on Cape Breton Island

1670-1676: Pope Clement X

1671: In Canada, Marquette establishes mission at Sault St. Marie

1672: In Canada, Immigration and births bring population of New France to 7,605, Frontenac arrives as governor, and Fort Frontenac founded at present site of Kingston; Marquette and Joliette reach Mississippi River, America; Jacques Fournel acquires farm in Quebec, Canada

1676-1689: Pope Innocent XI

1678: In Canada, "Brandy Parliament" approves use of liquor in fur trade

1679: Habeas Corpus: protection from arbritary arrest and safeguarding of personal liberty instituted, political parties are formed in England; La Salle launches the Griffon, the first ship built on the Great Lakes of North America

1682: In America, La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River; Henry Kelsey becomes the first European to visit Western Canada

1683: Unsuccessful siege of Vienna by Ottoman Turks; In Canada, a French force led by Radisson destroys the Hudson Bay Company's Fort Nelson

1684: In Canada, Grossiellers surrenders Fort Bourbon (York Fort) to Hudson's Bay Company

1685: In Canada, Intendant Jacques de Meulles authorizes "card money" as currency during coin shortage and Lower Town, Quebec is ravaged by fire: all 55 buildings burnt

1686: In Canada, D'Iberville seizes Hudson's Bay Company forts

1687: In Canada, Denonville attacks Senecas and builds Fort Niagara

1689: Declaration of Rights in England (approval of taxation, freedom of speech, and no standing army): legislative and executive division of powers; In Canada, a force of 1,500 Iroqouis devastates Lachine

1689-1691: Pope Alexander VIII

1690: In Canada, Frontenac wages war on English border settlements, William Phips and Massachusetts millitia capture Port-Royal, Henry Kelsey sets out from Yort Fort to explore prairies (Western Canada), and an English attempt to capture Quebec is thwarted by Frontenac

1691: In Canada, the first commercial water mill is built at Pétit Pré near Quebec

1691-1700: Pope Innocent XII

1694: In Canada, Bishop Saint-Vailler bans performance of Molière's Tartuffe and a French force under d'Iberville recaptures Fort Bourbon

1695: In Canada, the first sawmill in Acadia is built on Nashwaak River

1697: In Canada, the treaty of Ryswick returns York Fort to Hudson's Bay Company

1698: In Canada, Louis Hennepin publishes A New Discovery of a Vast Country in America

1699: Treaty of Karlowitz in which Ottoman Empire lose territories in Europe: Croatia returns to the Hungarian crown; In Canada, Bishop Saint-Vallier opens elementary school at Quebec

1700: Beginning of Industrial Revolution; In America, Cadillac goes to present-day site of Detroit and builds Fort Pontchartrain

1700-1721: Pope Clement XI

1701-1713/14: War of Spanish Succession: Gibraltar was seized by Britain in 1704, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia (Acadia) were given to Britain in 1713

1701-1868: House of Bourbon dynasty rules Spain

1701: Kingdom of Prussia established

1703: Founding of St. Petersburg in Russia

1704: In America, De Rouville and a force of 250 attack and burn Deerfield, Massachusetts

1706: In Canada, a census reports the total population of New France is 17,125

1707: The United Kingdom of Great Britain is formed (union between England and Scotland)

1708: In Canada, the French capture St. John's

1710: In Canada, the English capture Port-Royal and rename it Annapolis Royal

1713-1740: Frederick William I rules Prussia

1713: In America, the Five Nations (Iroquois) Confederacy admits the Tuscaroras; In Canada, the Treaty of Utrecht recognizes British sovereignty over Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia (excluding Cape Breton Island) and La Vérendrye and sons begin exploration west of Lake Winnipeg

1714-1901: The House of Hanover rules Great Britain: development of parliamentary government (majority party led by the Prime Minister)

1715-1774: Louis XV rules France

1717: In Canada, construction begins on the fortress of Louisbourg, île Royale (Cape Breton Island) and fire brigades are organized by Intendant Gilles Hocquart

1721: In Canada, regular mail service starts between Quebec and Montreal and a fire destroys 138 houses in Montreal

1721-1724-1730: Popes Innocent XIII and Benedict XIII

1725: In Canada, French pay-ship Le Chambeau goes down with gold and silver coins valued at over $700,000

1730: In Canada, the census reports a total population of 33,682 and Native Amerindians from present day Alberta acquire horses and guns

1730-1740: Pope Clement XII

1734: In Canada, the La Vérendryes build Fort Maurepas on Red River

1737: In Canada, forges built at Saint-Maurice to refine local iron ore and the first road from Quebec to Montreal opens

1738: In Canada, Fort La Reine (Portage La Prairie) and Fort Rouge (Winnipeg) founded

1739: In Canada, a census reports the population of New France as 42,701

c1740: The Mogul Empire begins to decline

1740-1758: Pope Benedict XIV

1741: In America, Vitus Bering, a Dane, and Peter Chirkoff explore Alaskan coast for Russia

1740-1786: Frederick II the Great rules Prussia

1740-1790: Maria Theresa and Joseph II rule Austria

1740-1748: War of Austrian Succession

1740-1814: Marquis de Sade (Donatien Alphonse François) was a French writer whose works contain descriptions of sexual pain and perversions. Internationally infamous, and better known as the Marquis de Sade, he was the lord of the Provençal village of Lacoste from 1774-1778, and also owned part of the commune of Mazan.

1743: In Canada, La Vérendrye brothers explore southern parts of Manitoba

1744: Sultanate of Oman is founded; In Canada, troops from Louisbourg attack Canso and Annapolis Royal

1745: In Canada, the Quadrille becomes a fashionable dance and New England forces capture Louisbourg

1748: In Canada, the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle returns Louisbourg to France and François Bigot named last Intendant of New France

1749: In Canada, Halifax is founded as an English Naval base by Edward Cornwallis

1752: In Canada, first printing press goes into use at Halifax Gazette office, Fort Rouillé completed on Toronto Bay, and Jean-Baptiste Goyer sentenced to death for murder of neighbour Jean Favré and wife; lightning rod is invented

1753: In Canada, Louis-François de La Corne builds fur post on Saskatchewan River

1754/1756-1763: 'Seven Years War', also known as French-Indian war, between France and Britain: the 'Seven Years War' actually started in 1754 in North America

French-Indian War (1754-1763)

British-French War in North America from 1754-1763

1754: In Canada, English troops led by George Washington defeated at Ft. Duquesne

1755: In Canada, Anthony Henday from York Factory reaches the Rockies, first post office opens in Halifax, and Governor Charles Lawrence expels some 5,000 Acadians from Nova Scotia

1756: In Canada, Montcalm captures Fort Oswego

1756-1757: Robert Clive defeats the Nawab of Bengal, starting British rule in India

1757: In Canada, Famine in Quebec forces food rationing: 300 die in Acadia

1758: In Canada, Montcalm routs superior British force at Fort Carillon, Amherst captures Louisbourg, Wolfe leads attack on French settlements on Baie-de-Chaleur, Fort Frontenac falls, and first representative assembly meets in Halifax court house

1758-1769: Pope Clement XIII

1759: In Canada, British capture Fort Niagara, French abandon Fort Rouillé, Wolfe and Montcalm are killed on the Plains of Abraham (Abraham Martin)

1762-1796: Catherine II the Great rules Russia

1763: Canada (New France) officially becomes part of British North America

1768-1774: Russo-Turkish War

1769: The Gurkhas unite Nepal

1769-1774: Pope Clement XIV

1770-1827: Ludwig van Beethoven, German Composer, music forms a peak in the development of tonal music and is one of the crucial evolutionary developments in the history of music. Beethoven developed a completely original style of music, reflecting his sufferings and joys. By 1820, when he was almost totally deaf, he composed his greatest works, including the Ninth Symphony.

1772-1795: Partition of Poland

1774-1792: Louis XVI rules France

1775-1783: 13 American colonies begin 'War of Independence': 1776 marked the Declaration of Independence

1775-1799: Pope Pius VI

1776: Submarine is invented; World Population is about 750 Million

1787: United States of America constitution written

1788: Australia is settled by the Europeans beginning with penal colonies

1789: French Revolution: 5 May - French Parliament (Estates-General) met at Versailles, for the first time in 175 years, and proclaimed themselves the national Assembly. 14 July - Storming of the Bastille

1790: The United States issues its first patent to William Pollard of Philadelphia: his machine roves and spins cotton

1791: 1st 10 amendments to the United States constitution: Declaration of Rights; Canada is reorganized into Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario): British provinces; King Louis XVI attempts to flee France with his family and is arrested

1792: France becomes a republic; Following France's declaration of war on Austria and Prussia, the mayor of Strasbourg, Baron de Dietrich, asked army engineer Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle to write a marching song. On the night of April 25th 1792, Rouget de Lisle penned the 'Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhine' - War song for the Rhine Army, named in honour of the garrison to which he belonged. The song was published under the name of 'Chant de guerre aux armées des frontières' - Border armies' war song by an Egyptian Army general, François Mireur, who was in Marseille to organise a march of revolutionary volunteers on King Louis XVI's Tuileries palace. Ironically, since Rouget de Lisle supported the monarchy, the revolutionaries adopted the song and sang it with such fervour as they entered the capital, on July 30th 1792, that the Parisians named it 'La Marseillaise'.

1793: United States' capital is founded at Washington; King Louis XVI of France, and then his widow Marie Antoinette are guillotined while the Reign of Terror is sweeping through France, claiming Robespierre as one of its victims.

1794: Cotton Gin is invented by Eli Whitney in order to comb and deseed bolls of cotton; The Qajars in Persia seize power after Karim Khan's death: Agha Mohammad Qajar becomes leader (until 1797)

1795-1799: The Directory rules in France

1795: Fort Edmonton "Edmonton House" (in Alberta, Canada) was established by the Hudson's Bay Company: Trading began with the Cree and Blackfoot Indians for luxurious animal pelts and, by 1826, Fort Edmonton was developing into a mercantile centre. It was also the chief stopping point to Canada's north and the Pacific Ocean.

 India circa 1795

India circa 1795 AD

1797: Eli Whitney invents the concept of 'interchangeable parts' which divide the labor into several discrete steps and standardized parts to make them interchangeable

1798: France occupies Egypt and Rome under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte

1798-1834: Fath-'Ali Shah is ruler of Persia

1799-1804: Napoleon Bonaparte returning from Egypt, via Fréjus, seizes power in a coup d'état and forms the Cosulat in France. The Cosulat was an authoritarian regime established in France to support Napoléon Bonaparte. Napoléon was the first consul and had full power. The second and third consuls, Cambacérés and Lebrun, deferred to the legislative power of four assemblies.

Europe circa 1800

Europe at the end of the 18th Century

1800: France reacquires the Louisiana Territory from Spain in North America; the Bank of France was created; Sikh kingdoms begin to gain power in the Punjab; Electric battery invented

1800-1823: Pope Pius VII

1801: Ireland joins Great Britain with the "Act of Union"; Steam-powered Pumping Station is invented

1803: United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France; Dr. Alan de Vilbiss of Toledo, Ohio invents the 'Spray Gun' to replace swabs as the method of applying medication to oral and nasal passages

1804: Haiti becomes independent; in France the Civil Code was completed

1804-1815: Napoleon I (Bonaparte) rules as Emperor in France. He creates a new army, using able-bodied Frenchmen rather than the upper-class and nobility. He begins his bid for power, eventually controlling most of western Europe (except Britain and Portugal). By 1812 he was bogged down in snows of the Russian winter. In 1814, April, he is defeated by an overwhelming force of Austrian, English, Prussian and Swedish troops, Napoleon was exiled to Elba, embarking at Fréjus. In 1815 he escaped from Elba and set out on the 'Route Napoléon' to recover the world he had lost. On the 18th of June, 1815 he fought his final battle at Waterloo, against Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington, and was exiled to Saint Helena off the coast of Africa. He died in 1821 in exile.

1805: Mohammed Ali becomes ruler of Egypt; the first 'amphibious vehicle' is invented

1806: Napoleon I (Bonaparte) pressures Francis II to give up German imperial crown thereby ending the 'Holy Roman Empire': Confederation of the Rhine is created; the coffee pot is invented

1807: The steamship is invented by Robert Fulton; Hegel (1770-1831), German philosopher, writes "Phenomenology of Mind". His writings include theories of ethics, aesthetics, history, politics, and religion. At the center of the universe Hegel posited an enveloping absolute spirit that guides all reality, including human reason. His absolute idealism envisages a world-soul, evident throughout history, that develops from, and is known through, a process of change and progress now known universally as the Hegelian dialectic. According to its laws, one concept (thesis) inevitably generates its opposite (antithesis); their interaction leads to a new concept (synthesis), which in turn becomes the thesis of a new triad. Thus philosophy enables human beings to comprehend the historical unfolding of the absolute. Hegel's application of the dialectic to the concept of conflict of cultures stimulated historical analysis and, in the political arena, made him a hero to those working for a unified Germany. He was a major influence on subsequent idealist thinkers and on such philosophers as Kierkegaard and Sartre; perhaps his most far-reaching effect was his influence on Karl Marx, who substituted materialism for idealism in his formulation of dialectical materialism.

1810: Chile becomes independent

1811: Paraguay becomes independent; The 1st anti-industrial riots take place by the machine-breaking 'Luddites'

1812-1814: War of 1812 between Britain and the United States

1812: Hegel writes "Science of Logic"; Treaty of Gulistan in which Persia loses some its territories in the Caucasus north of the Aras River to Russia

1813: First armored warship is invented by Robert Fulton: the Demolos (At 140 ft. in length, it carries a thirty 32-pound cannon)

1814: The locomotive (train) is invented; the cast-iron tip plough is invented by John Jethro Woods of Poplar Ridge, New York

1815-1866: Germanic Confederation is formed

1815-1824: Napoleon I is defeated and Louis XVIII, restoring Bourbon dynasty, rules France

1816: Argentina becomes independent

1817: Hegel writes "Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences"; the Erie Canal project is first proposed by engineers: they plan to supplement the natural water systems by digging a 363 mile canal to connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie

1818: The first 'Profile Lathe' is invented by Thomas Blanchard: he builds a woodworking lathe that does the work of 13 men thereby helping to lower wood prices

1821: Columbia (New Granada) becomes independent

1821-1829: Greek War of Independence: Greek Independence proclaimed in 1822.   Britain, France, and Russia support Greece against its Ottoman rulers in 1827.

1821: Peru, Mexico, and the United Provinces of Central America (until 1838) become independent

1822: Brazil and Ecuador become independent

1823: Monroe Doctrine proclaimed warning against European intervention in the Americas

1823-1829: Pope Leo XII

1824-1830: Charles X rules France

1825: Bolivia becomes independent

1827: The match is invented

1828: Uruguay becomes independent; Treaty of Turkmanchay in which Persia loses the remainder of  its territories in the Caucasus north of the Aras River to Russia

1829-1830: Pope Pius VIII

1830: 1st railway in use from Liverpool to Manchester; July Revolution in France creates unrest across Europe; Belgium and Venezuela become independent; The French invade Algeria; the Electro-magnetic Motor is invented by Joseph Henry, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science at the Albany Academy

1830-1848: Louis-Phillipe in a 'July Revolution' establishes the House of Orleans and rules France as the last King

1831-1846: Pope Gregory XVI

1831: The 'Reaping Machine' is invented which cut grain much faster than a man with a scythe

1833: The first lock-stitch sewing machine is invented by Walter Hunt. He loses interest and does not patent his invention. Later, Elias Howe secures patent on an original lock-stitch machine, but fails to manufacture and sell it. Still later, Isaac Singer infringes on Howe's patent to make his own machine, which makes Singer rich. Hunt also invents the safety pin, which he sells outright for $400.

1834: The Threshing Machine is invented by John A. and Hiram Abial Pitts: the machine automatically threshes and separates grain from chaff, freeing farmers from a slow and laborious process

1835-1848: Persia is ruled by Mohammad Shah

1836: The 'Revolver' is invented by Colt: To finance the development of his "six shooter" Samuel Colt traveled the lecture circuit, giving demonstrations of laughing gas. Colt's new weapon failed to catch on and he went bankrupt in 1842 at age 28. He reorganized and sold his first major order to the War Department during the Mexican War in 1846, and went on to become fabulously rich; Texas revolts from Mexican rule and becomes an independent republic (until 1845)

1837-1838: Rebellions in Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) lead to parliamentary reform

1837: Thomas Davenport of Brandon, Vemont is one of the first to find practical application for the electric motor. He uses a motor he built to power shop machinery, and also builds the first electric model railroad car.

1838: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua become independent after the United Provinces of Central America fails

1840: The collapsible metal squeeze 'paint tube' is invented by John Rand

1841: Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec) are united into one British colony known as the Province of Canada

1842: Crawford Williamson Long, of Jefferson, Georgia performs the first operation using an ether-based anesthesia, when he removes a tumor from the neck of Mr. James Venable

1843: Vulcanized Rubber is invented by Charles Goodyear

1844: 'Edict of Toleration' is given by Sultan of Turkey allowing Jews to return to their 'homeland': end of 1,260 'days' prophecy, 2,300 'days' prophecy, 3 and 1/2 times (3 and 1/2 years) prophecy,and 2,520 'days' of the Abomination of Desolation prophecy, and the "seven-times" prophecy of 2,520 lunar 'days'; Mírzá `Alí Muhammad, who afterwards assumed the title of Báb (i.e. 'Gate'), (born in 1819) declares he is the promised one (Mahdi) of Islam in Shiraz, Persia (1260 AH) thereby creating the Babi religion; YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) formed; Dominican Republic becomes independent; the Telegraph is invented by Samuel F.B. Morse: he demonstrates his telegraph by sending a message to Baltimore from the chambers of the Supreme Court in Washington, DC saying "What hath God wrought?"

1845: False Teeth is invented by Cladius Ash: he creates a new type of artificial dental wear featuring individual porcelain teeth mounted with steel springs

1846-1848: US-Mexican war results in Mexican loss of land north of the Rio Grande river

1846-1878: Pope Pius IX

1846: The Cylinder Printing Press is invented by Richard M. Hoe eliminating the need for making impressions directly from the type plates themselves, which were heavy and difficult to maneuver

1847: Communist Manifesto is written by Karl Marx; Liberia becomes independent

1848-1849: Revolutions rage across Europe

1848: In France the February Revolution installs a republican government (2nd Republic) in place of the monarchy with Louis Napoleon as President; Croatia supports the Habsbourgs against the Hungarian rebels during a revolution; the Province of Canada is granted 'responsible government':  representation by population (ie. "rep by pop"); Nasiri'd-Din Shah becomes ruler of Persia (until 1896): The last years of Nasiri'd-Din Shah's reign were characterized by growing royal and bureaucratic corruption, oppression of the rural population, and indifference on the shah's part. The tax machinery broke down, and disorder became endemic in the provinces. New ideas and a demand for reform were also becoming more widespread. In 1896, reputedly encouraged by Jamal ad Din al Afghani (called Asadabadi because he came from Asadabad), the well-known Islamic preacher and political activist, a young Iranian assassinated the shah.

1848-1916: Francis Joseph I rules Austria

1850: Mírzá `Alí Muhammad, also known as the Bab (ie. 'Gate'), is martyred in Tabriz, Persia by order of the Prime Minister Mirza Taqi Khan Amir Kabir (The power he concentrated in his hands, however, aroused jealousy within the bureaucracy and fear in the king. He was dismissed and put to death in 1851.)

1851: The Great Exhibition opens in London's Crystal Palace which featured 14,000 exhibits

1852-1870: (Louis) Napoleon III rules as Emperor of France

1854-1856: Crimean War

1856: Henry Bessemer invents his converter to make pig iron into steel

1857: Louis Pasteur begins his study on fermentation; Indian mutiny: The Moguls defeated by the British; the Passenger Elevator is invented by Elisha Graves Otis; the Treaty of Paris in which Persia surrendered to Britain all claims to Herat and territories in present-day Afghanistan

1858: The British government assumes direct control of India; the electric burglar alarm is invented by Edwin T. Holmes of Boston

1859: Charles Darwin writes "The Origin of Species Through Natural Selection"; first American oil well is dug: Drilling at Titusville, PA, "Colonel" Edwin Drake, strikes oil at a depth of 69.5 feet. Prior to that, oil, which had been used mostly as a lubricant and lamp fuel, had been obtained only at places where it seeped from the ground. Western Pennsylvania witnesses the world's first oil boom

1860: First Jewish neighborhood since the expulsion by the Romans is built outside Jerusalem's walls (Mishkenot Sha'ananim); French explorer-naturalist Henri Mouhot stumbles onto Angkor Wat, then all-but forgotten; the first repeating rifle is invented by B. Tyler Henry, chief designer for Oliver Fisher Winchester's arms company: he adapts a breech-loading rifle invented by Walter B. Hunt and creates a new lever action repeating rifle. First known as the Henry, the rifle will soon be famous as simply the Winchester.

1861: Abolition of serfdom in Russia; Victor Emmanuel II becomes King of a united Italy; Monaco becomes independent

1861-1865: The American civil war between the north (United States of America) and the south (Confederate States of America): The American civil war ends with the north being successful and slavery being abolished

America Civil War (1861-1865)

American Civil War (1861-1865)

1862: Bismarck becomes Prime Minister of Prussia; For the first time, two armored ships battle each other at sea during the American Civil War. The Union Monitor, designed from scratch by John Ericsson, features a two-cannon revolving turret and eight-inch plate armor. The Confederate Merrimac, a wooden hulled ship hastily outfitted with iron plates, holds it own against the Monitor, battling to a draw.

1863: Mírzá Husayn `Alí, a Persian exiled for religious reasons, who afterwards assumed the title of Bahá'u'lláh (i.e. Glory of God), (born in 1817) declares (19 years after the Bab's declaration) in Baghdad, Iraq (then a part of the Ottoman Empire) that he is the 'promised one' of all religions (the tenth avatar for Hindus/reincarnation of Krishna, the fifth Buddha for Buddhists, the Messiah for Jews, and the return of Christ for Christians and Muslims) thereby creating the Báha'í Faith; in 1867 he writes to various world leaders; in 1868 he arrives a prisoner in Akka, Palestine; in 1873 he writes the Kitab'i'Aqdas 'Most Holy Book'; in 1892 he passes away and his son Abbás Effendi also known as `Abdu'l-Bahá (i.e. Servant of Bahá), (1844-1921) becomes the leader of the Báha'í Faith.

1864: Siemens and Martin introduce the open-hearth process for making steel; the first oil pipeline is built in the oil fields at Pithole, Pennsylvania. Samuel van Syckel's 5 mile, pump-operated pipeline made oil transport infinitely easier. No one appreciated this more than the Teamsters, who saw a threat to their business and destroyed the pipeline. The determined van Syckel hired a crew of "pipeline protectors" and rebuilt.

1865: 'Web Offset Printing' is invented by William Bullock: he introduced a printing press that could feed paper on a continuous roll and print both sides of the paper at once. Used first by the Philadelphia Ledger, the machine would become an American standard, and would also kill its maker, who died when he accidentally fell into one of his presses.

1866: Dynamite is invented by Alfred Nobel; the first transatlantic cable is laid

1867: Austro-Hungarian Empire is established with Francis Joseph I as Emperor; Luxembourg becomes independent; The Dominion of Canada is formed from 4 British provinces (Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick) and becomes semi-independent; US purchases Alaska from Russia; Werner Siemens introduces his dynamo for generating electricity; barbed wire is invented by Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio: he invents the product that will close down the open cattle ranges by closing in cattle onto individual plots of privately owned land. I.L. Ellwood and Company's Glidden Steel Barb Wire will dominate the market; by 1890 the open range will be only a memory.

1868: The Austrian-Hungarian compromise states that Croatia is reattached to Hungary; Meiji restoration in Japan

1869: Northwest Territories formed in Canada; The Suez Canal is opened

1870-1871: Franco-Prussian War leaves Prussia victorious and France becomes a republic again (3rd Republic)

1870: Manitoba becomes the 5th province within Canada after 1st Riel Rebellion; the 'Pneumatic Subway'  is invented. Working in secret to hide his operation from Boss Tweed, who opposes it, Scientific American publisher Alfred Ely Beach builds a pneumatic subway under Broadway in New York. Beach's single subway car, which features upholstered chairs and chandeliers is driven along the 300 foot tunnel by a 100 horsepower blower.

1871: Rome becomes official capital of Italy after Papal States are absorbed; German Empire is formed with William I as Emperor; British Columbia becomes the 6th province within Canada; Charles Darwin publishes "Descent of Man"

1873: Prince Edward Island becomes the 7th province within Canada; The Three Emperor's League is formed by Austria, Russia, and Germany; The Dutch attack the Sumatran Muslim kingdom; the typewriter is invented by Christopher Latham Sholes

1874: In Canada, Fort Calgary is built and Sam Livingston (1831-1897) becomes the first settler; The first structural steel bridge is invented by Captain James Buchanan Eads: He finishes the bridge across the Mississippi at St. Louis. Using steel supplied by Andrew Carnegie, Eads has incorporated a triple arch design, with spans measuring 502, 520, and 502 feet. The construction amazes the engineering world. Eads will be the first American engineer to be awarded the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts in London.

1875: The electric dental drill is invented by George F. Green; the mimeograph is invented by Thomas Edison in order to make duplicate copies of documents

1876: Alfonso XII ascends the Spanish throne; Queen Victoria named 'Empress of India'; the telephone is invented by Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray, who developed a similar device at about the same time; United States Centennial celebrated

1877: Russian-Turkish war begins; the phonograph is invented by Thomas Edison: it was a system of sound recording and transmission that works by making impressions on a vertical tube of wax. The first recording replayed is a voice saying "Mary had a little lamb its fleece was white as snow."

1878: Congress of Berlin in which Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro become independent and Africa is partitioned among the European powers; The Salvation Army is founded by William Booth

1878-1903: Pope Leo XIII

1879: Germany and Austria form the Dual Alliance; the first incandescent light bulb is invented by Thomas Edison: The first commercial incandescent system will be installed at the New York printing firm of Hinds and Ketcham in January, 1881.

1879-1955 Albert Einstein, German Physicist, was one of the most creative scientists in human history. He initiated a revolution in scientific thought with his theory of relativity. Its basis was the identification of gravity with inertia. His work provided the theoretical expectation that vast amounts of energy could be released from the nucleus.

1880: The first hearing aid is invented by R.G. Rhodes

1881: French occupy Tunisia; Russian Emperor Alexander II is assassinated and Alexander III become Tsar

1882: British occupy Egypt; Italy joins Austria and Germany to form the Triple Alliance; the first electric fan is invented by Dr. Schuyler Skaats Wheeler: His two-bladed desk fan is produced by the Crocker and Curtis electric motor company.

1882-1903: First large-scale Jewish immigration to Palestine occurs, mainly from Russia

1883: Bismarck establishes social welfare in Germany

1884: Germany establishes colonies in East Africa; trade unions are legalized in France; the first Roller Coaster is invented by L.N. Thompson

1885: The Automobile is invented by Daimlar and Benz; 2nd Riel Rebellion in Western Canada; The Machine-Gun is invented by Hiram Maxim; the first Skyscraper is built by William Le Baron Jenney: The 10-story Home Insurance Company Building in Chicago was the first to use steel-girder construction

1887: The "Platter" record is invented by Emile Berliner

1888-1918: William II is Emperor of Germany

1888: The Kodak camera is first invented by George Eastman: He introduces a hand-held box camera for portable use. The camera is pre-loaded with a 100 exposure film; after shooting the photographer returns the whole camera to the manufacturer for development and a reload.

1889: Meiji Constitution in Japan; the first practical dishwashing machine is invented by Mrs. WA Cockran of Shelbyville, Indiana

1890: Bismarck is dismissed as German Prime Minister

1891: The escalator is invented by Jesse W. Reno who introduces it as a new novelty ride at Coney Island

1892: The first American gasoline-powered car is invented by Frank and Charles Duryea; Edmonton (in Alberta, Canada) was incorporated as a town with a population of 700

1893: The 'Zipper' is introduced at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago by Whitcomb L. Judson: The clasp locker, a hook-and-eye device opened and closed by a sliding clasp was later improved upon and workers at B.F. Goodrich coin the name "zipper" in 1923.

1896-1907: Muzaffari'd-Din is Shah of Persia

1897: Rudolf Diesel patents his 'Diesel' engine; First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland: Zionist Organization founded; the player piano is patent by Edwin S. Votey

1898: Spanish-American War: US acquires Puerto Rico, Cuba, The Philippines, Hawaii, and Guam; the first practical submarine is invented by the J.P. Holland torpedo boat company and commissioned by the US Navy

1899: Hague Peace Conference

1899-1902: Boer War in South Africa

Go to Top

1900: Italy's King Humbert is assassinated and Victor Emmanuel becomes King; Max Planck presents his 'Quantum Theory'; World Population is about 1.5 Billion

1901: The Commonwealth of Australia is formed and granted semi-independence; Edward VII becomes Britain's new King; Marconi sends the first message over the transatlantic wireless telegraph; the double-edged safety razor is invented by Gillette; World Court is established

1902: Cuba becomes independent; the first air conditioning unit is invented by Willis H. Carrier to control temperature and humidity

1903: Orville and Wilbur Wright make the first successful powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight; Panama becomes independent; The Mensheviks (soft-line Communists) and Bolsheviks (hard-line Communists) split over doctrine in Russia

1903-1914: Pope St. Pius X

1904: The Anglo-French Entente is formed; the Russo-Japanese war begins; With a population of 9,000 residents, Edmonton (in Alberta, Canada) was incorporated as a city.

1904-14: Second large-scale Jewish immigration to Palestine, mainly from Russia and Poland

1905: The Theory of Relativity is discovered by Albert Einstein; Alberta (with Edmonton as its capital) and Saskatchewan become the 8th and 9th provinces within Canada; Norway becomes independent

1906: Revolution in Persia leads to constitutional monarchy; the first Radio Broadcast is performed by Reginald Fessenden: He plays two songs, a poem, and a brief talk. Fessenden's broadcast is picked up by ships on the Atlantic hundreds of miles away.

1907: The Dominion of New Zealand is formed and granted semi-independence; The Triple Entente is formed when Russia joins Britain and France; Muhammad-'Ali Shah is ruler of Persia until 1909; Afghanistan gains autonomy in Anglo-Russian agreement

1908: Young Turks revolt in Ottoman Empire: parliamentary rule instituted; Bulgaria becomes independent; Car maker Henry Ford introduces his 'Model T' automobile

1909: First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, are founded in Palestine; Tofield (in Alberta, Canada) officially becomes a town;  Ahmad Shah is ruler of Persia until 1925

1910: The Union of South Africa is formed and granted semi-independence; Portugal's monarchy is overthrown

manchu.gif (13621 bytes)

Manchu China in 1912

1911: The Chinese Revolution: the Manchu Dynasty falls; Tank is invented; Ernest Rutheford creates a nuclear model of the atom; the first electric automobile starter is invented by Charles F. Kettering, who developed the electric cash register: This device increases the popularity of the gasoline-powered car, which no longer needs to be started with a hand crank.

1912: Tibet (until 1950), Mongolia, and Albania become independent: In Tibet all the Chinese troops surrendered and were deported leaving no doubt as to whether China had nominal suzerainty over Tibet. In the following year Tibet entered into a treaty with Mongolia at Urga. By this treaty executed under the Official Seal of Dalai Lama, both governments recognized 'each other as independent states, free of Manchu rule and separate from China; The Balkan wars begin in Europe; Edmonton (in Alberta, Canada) and the neighboring Town of Strathcona (on the south side of the river) amalgamated, swelling the population to 53,611 residents.

1914: World War I (WWI) starts after Serbia assassinates Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey oppose Triple Entente of Britain, France, and Russia; the Panama Canal opens after 36 years' labor, the bankruptcy of thousands of investors, and the deaths of more than 25,000 men

ww1.gif (15226 bytes)

World War I (1914-1918)

1914-1922: Pope Benedict XV

1915: A secret Turkish military directive ordered the arrest and prompt execution of Armenian community leaders. 1.5 million people perished in this first genocide of the 20th century. Another wave of massacres occurred in Baku (1918). Shushi (1920) and elsewhere.

1917: The Russian Revolution: Bolsheviks (Communists) take control and withdraw Russia from World War I; Finland becomes independent; 400 years of Ottoman rule in Palestine ended by British conquest: British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine"; United States enters World War I

1918: World War I ends after Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey capitulates; Czechoslovakia (until 1993), Hungary, North Yemen (until 1990), Poland, Lithuania (except from 1940-1991), Latvia (except from 1940-1991), and Estonia (except from 1940-1991) become independent; The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes is created (Yugoslavia)

1919: The League of Nations is created; Afghanistan becomes independent (granted by the Treaty of Rawalpindi); the hydrofoil is invented by Alexander Grahams Bell: his Hydrodome IV sets a world record of 70 mph for water travel. The boat weighs over 10,000 pounds and uses underwater fins to raise the hull of the boat and decrease drag between the hull and the water.

1919-1921: The treaties of Neuilly-sur-Seine, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Trianon and Rapallo establish Yugoslavia's borders (1919-1920) and give it a parliament and centralized constitution (1921)

1921: The first wirephoto (electronically-transmitted photograph) is sent by Western Union; The Treaty of Sevres anticipated an independent Kurdish state to cover large portions of the former Ottoman Kurdistan. Unimpressed by the Kurds' many bloody uprisings for independence, France and Britain divided up Ottoman Kurdistan between Turkey, Syria and Iraq.

1922: The communist Soviet Union (until 1991) is formed out of the old Russian Empire; The Republic of Turkey is established from the old Ottoman Empire; Egypt becomes independent; The Irish Free State is formed and granted  semi-independence

1922-1939: Pope Pius XI

1923: The Treaty of Lausanne formalized the division of Kurdistan between Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Kurds of Persia/Iran, meanwhile, were kept where they were by Tehran.

1924: The first execution using the gas chamber in the United States

1926: The first liquid-fueld rocket is invented by Robert H. Goddard; Emir Amanullah founds the Kingdom of Afghanistan

1927: The first television is demonstrated by Philo Farnsworth

1929: The stock market collapses in the United States triggering the Great Depression (until 1939); King Alexander I creates an authoritarian regime and the new kingdom will take the name of Yugoslavia: The Croats are opposed to the Serbian centralism. They created the Ustacha secret society, which principal leader, Ante Pavelic, will be the later ‘Povlagnik’ (leader) of Croatia in 1941; the first 'frozen food' is invented by Clarence Birdseye: Birdseye got the idea during fur-trapping expeditions to Labrador in 1912 and 1916, where he saw the natives use freezing to preserve foods.

1931: The Statute of Westminster grants full independence to Canada, Newfoundland (until 1933), Ireland, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand under the British Monarchy; radio astronomy develops after Karl Guthe tries to track down a source of electrical interference on telephone transmissions: he discovers radio waves emanating from stars in outer space instead

1932: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia proclaimed; Iraq becomes independent; the defibrillator is invented by Dr. William Bennett Kouwenhoven: it is a device for jump-starting the heart with a burst of electricity

1933: Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party come to power in Germany: begins Genocide (Holocaust) of approx. 6 million Jews between 1935 and 1945

1934: Alexander I of Yugoslavia is killed in Marseille, France. His brother Paul assumes the regency in name of Peter II

1935: Persia changes its name to Iran

1937: The chair lift is invented by engineers from the Union Pacific Railroad who build a chair lift for the Dollar Mountain Ski resort

1938: Nylon is invented at the du Pont de Nemours & Company plant

Japanese Empire in 1938

Japanese Empire in 1938

1939: World War II (WWII) starts as Nazi Germany invades Poland; the protype for the digital computer is invented by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry of Iowa State College: It can store data and perform addition and subtractions using binary code. The next generation of the machine will be abandoned before it is completed due to the onset of World War II.

1939-1958: Pope Pius XII

1940: Most of western and central Europe is occupied by Nazi Germany; the 3 Baltic states (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) are absorbed by the Soviet Union; the 'jeep' is invented by Karl K. Pabst of the Bantam Car. Co.: the jeep will be used for numerous transport applications throughout World War II, and will become a popular domestic vehicle after the war

1941: Nazi Germany now occupies most of Europe after invading eastern Europe: the Soviet Union joins the Allied Powers; United States enters World War II after Pearl Harbour, Hawaii is attacked by Japan; Syria and Lebanon become independent

1942: The first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction occurs (Manhattan Project) by a team working under Enrico Fermi at the University of Chicago

World War II during 1942

World War II during 1942

1944: June 6, Allied forces successfully invade Normandy, France in order to retake Europe from Nazi Germany; Iceland becomes independent

World War II (1942-1945)

World War II (in Europe) map from 1942-1945

1945: The first atomic bomb is invented by J.R. Oppenheimer, Arthur H. Compton, Enrico Fermi and Léo Szilard. It is detonated at the Los Alamos Lab near Santa Fé, New Mexico; World War II ends in Europe as Germany (partitioned and occupied) and Italy capitulate. The war ends in Japan (occupied) after the dropping of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki (with a total loss of 100,000 lives); the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States begins; The United Nations Organization (UN) is created; Chinese civil war begins (Communist party v.s. Nationalist party; France forms its 4th Republic; Indonesia, (North)Vietnam, and South Vietnam (until 1975) become independent; Kurds set up a Kurdish republic at Mahabad in the Soviet occupied zone in Iran. It lasted one year, until it was reoccupied by the Iranian army.

1945-1946: Nuremberg Trials in which war (WWII) criminals are tried by the Allied judges

1946: The first electronic computer is invented: ENIAC; The Philippines and Jordan (Transjordan) become independent; Communist Yugoslavia is created from various ethnic regions: Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Macedonia. Tito leads the government. He clashes with Stalin, who excludes Yugoslavia from the socialist scene.

1947: India and Pakistan become independent; UN partition plan (rejected by Arabs) for Palestine devised (Jewish and Arab controlled areas); the first 'Polaroid' camera invented by Dr. Edwin H. Land: it can produce a developed photographic image in sixty seconds. Land will follow in the 1960's with a color model, and eventually receive more than 500 patents for his innovations in light and plastics technologies; In Edmonton (Alberta, Canada), oil is discovered at nearby Leduc. Virtually overnight, the city became the "Oil Capital of Canada." - Edmonton established itself as the hub of Alberta's petrochemical industry.

1948: Israel, Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka (Ceylon), North Korea, and South Korea become independent; Pakistan and India fight war over control of Kashmir; the Arab League is formed; the electric guitar is invented by Leo Fender

1948-1949: 1st Arab-Israeli war

1949: China's civil war ends with the Communist party taking over mainland (People's Republic of China) and the Nationalist party fleeing to Taiwan (Republic of China); Ireland becomes a republic; Newfoundland becomes the 10th province within Canada; West Germany, East Germany (until 1990), Bhutan, and Laos become independent

1950: World population is 2.5 billion; the People's Liberation Army had penetrated Tibet as far as Chamdo the capital of Kham province and headquarters of the Tibetan Army's Eastern Command. The region was routed and the Governor, Ngawang Jigme Ngabo, taken prisoner. Chinese forces were also stealthily infiltrating Tibet's north-eastern border Province, Amdo, but avoiding military clashes which would alert international interest. That year the 15-year-old Dalai Lama, his entourage and select government officials, evacuated the capital and set up a provisional administration near the Indian border at Yatung

1950-1953: Korean Civil War

1951: In Tibet a vanguard of 3,000 Chinese "liberation forces" marched into the capital, Lhasa; Libya becomes independent; the UNIVAC 1 is the first commercial computer sold by The Eckert and Mauchly Computer Co. of Philadelphia to the US Census Bureau. The memory called up data by transmitting sonic pulses through tubes of mercury.

1953: Cambodia becomes independent; the first 'Heart-lung' machine is used by Dr. John H. Gibbon who performs the first successful open heart surgery in which the blood is artificially circulated and oxygenated by a heart-lung machine. This new technology, which allows the surgeon to operate on a dry and motionless heart, greatly increases surgical treatment options for heart defects and disease.

1955: The first nuclear submarine is launched, The Nautilus: it revolutionizes naval warfare. Conventional submarines need two engines; a diesel engine to travel on the surface, and an electric engine to travel submerged, where oxygen for a diesel engine is not available. The Nautilus, the first nuclear sub, can travel many thousands of miles below the surface with a single fuel charge.

1956: Morocco, Tunisia, and Sudan become independent; 2nd Arab-Israeli war

1957: The Soviet Union launches the first satellite, Sputnik 1, into orbit and Sputnik 2 carries the first animal (a dog) into orbit; European Economic Community (EEC) established; Malaysia and Ghana become independent; the Polio vaccine is developed by Dr. Albert Sabin

1958: France forms its 5th Republic; Guinea becomes independent; first US satellite, Explorer 1: its mission is to detect radiation, it discovers one of the Van Allen radiation belts

1958-1963: Pope John XXIII

1960: Beginning of Information Revolution; Quiet Revolution begins in Canada's province of Quebec; Benin (Dahomey), Gabon, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Republic of the Congo (Congo Republic or Congo-Brazzaville), Central African Republic, Chad, Togo, Cyprus, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Somalia, Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire or Congo-Kinshasa), Nigeria, Madagascar, Mauritania, and Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) become independent; the LASER is invented by physicist Theodore H. Maiman; World Population is about 3 Billion

1961: South Africa becomes a republic; Kuwait, Tanganyika (until 1964), and Sierra Leone become independent; the Berlin Wall is erected cutting off access to and preventing escape from East Berlin within East Germany; first human in orbit (Yuri Gagarin); first American is space (Alan Shepard)

1962: Cuban Missile crisis occurs between Soviet Union and the United States: highest nuclear alert during Cold War; Algeria, Trinidad-Tobago, Samoa (Western Samoa), Uganda, Jamaica, Rwanda, and Burundi become independent; first American in orbit (John Glenn)

1963: Kenya and Zanzibar (until 1964) become independent; first woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)

1963-1978: Pope Paul VI

1964: Tanzania is formed from the independent states of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; Malawi, Zambia (North Rhodesia), and Malta become independent; the first massed-produced Operating System (OS/360) is rolled out by IBM: Using the OS/360, all of the computers in the IBM 360 family could run any software program

1965: Singapore, Maldives, and The Gambia become independent; the United States becomes involved in Vietnamese civil war; Pakistan and India go to war for 2nd time over control of Kashmir; first space walk (Aleksei Leonov); first American space walk (Edward White II); the first minicomputer is introduced by Digital Equipment: The PDP-8 was the world's first computer to use integrated circuit technology

1966: Barbados, Guyana, Lesotho, and Botswana become independent; Gemini 8 makes first docking with another spacecraft

1967: Israel extends its territory by capturing the Sinai, the West Bank (incl. Jerusalem), the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights from the Arabs in 3rd Arab-Israeli war; South Yemen (until 1990) becomes independent; a fire in the Apollo 1 command module results in the death of 3 astronauts; Soyuz 1 crashes on re-entry killing Vladimir Komarov

1968: Equatorial Guinea, Swaziland, Nauru, and Mauritius become independent; Stanley Kubrick's science fiction film "2001: A Space Odyssey" is released, based on Arthur C. Clarke's story "The Sentinel"; first manned mission to orbit the moon, Apollo 8, is launched

1969: United States launches Apollo 11 and Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the 1st humans to walk on the Earth's moon

1970: Fiji and Tonga become independent; 'Front de Liberation du Quebec' (FLQ) crises in which terrorism in Quebec, Canada reaches highest level; Apollo 13 moon mission is aborted after an oxygen tank ruptures: the crew returned safely after 4 days; optical fiber is developed by Corning Glass: optical fiber is glass so clear that it can communicate pulses of light. GTE and AT&T will soon begin experiments to transmit sound and image data using fiber optics, which will transform the communications industry.

c1970-1995: The Iraqi Kurds enjoy an official autonomous status in a portion of that state's Kurdistan. By the end of 1991, they had become all but independent from Iraq. By 1995, however, the Kurdish government in Arbil was at the verge of political suicide due to the outbreak of factional fighting between various Kurdish warlords.

1971: Bangladesh (East Pakistan), United Arab Emirates, and Qatar become independent; first space station is launched by the Soviet Union (Salyut 1)

1972: The first mass-produced video game, 'Pong' becomes popular: Noland Bushnell, the 28 year-old inventor of Pong, will go on to found Atari.

1973 The Bahamas, Guinea-Bissau, and Bahrain become independent; Parti Quebecois (Separatist party) becomes official opposition in Canada's province of Quebec; The United States withdraws from Vietnam; 4th Arab-Israeli war (October 6 - Yom Kippur); the first US space station is launched (Skylab 1); Military coup in Afghanistan ousts King Muhammed Zahir

1974: Grenada becomes independent; the barcode is first used in American stores

1975: Angola, Sao Tome & Principe, The Comoros, Mozambique, Suriname, Papua New Guinea, and Cape Verde become independent; Vietnam's civil war ends with the North (Communist) side victorious: unification; Lebanese Civil war starts; first international manned mission: Apollo-Soyuz space docking; Microsoft Corporation is first formed by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in order to write computer software. They sell their first software to Ed Roberts at MIT, which has produced the Altair 8800, the first microprocessor-based computer.

1976: Viking 1 probe lands on planet Mars: 1st pictures of surface of Mars; Parti Quebecois (Separatist party) wins provincial election in Canada's province of Quebec for 1st time; Seychelles becomes independent; the first Supercomputer is introduced by Cray Research, the Cray-1, which can perform operations at a rate of 240 million calculations per second. Supercomputers designed by Seymour Cray will continue to dominate the market; the Cray 2, marketed in 1985, will be capable of 1.2 billion calculations per second; United States Bicentennial celebrated

1977: Djibouti becomes independent

1978: Dominica, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands become independent; Pope John Paul I (August to September); Pro-Soviet leftists oust military government in Afghanistan and conclude economic and military treaties with the USSR

1978-Present: Pope John Paul II

1979: Islamic revolution in Iran leads to religious theocracy being established: religious persecution of Báha'í faith; Kiribati, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia become independent; Soviet Union becomes involved in Afghanistan civil war; Voyager 1 and 2 make closest approach to Jupiter relaying first images of planet and its moons; Skylab falls out of orbit and crashes to Earth; Another coup in Afghanistan leads the USSR to invade Afghanistan and install a puppet government

Modern Iran (click to enlarge image)

Modern Iran

1980: 1st referendum on sovereignty (independence) in Canada's province of Quebec: independence plan is rejected by 60% of voters; Vanuatu (New Hebrides) and Zimbabwe (South Rhodesia) become independent; Iran-Iraq war begins

1980-1988: Muslim "mujahedeen" ("holy warriors") in Afghanistan wage a remarkably successful guerrilla war against the Soviet occupation

1981: IBM produces first personal computer: Microsoft launches MS-DOS (personal computer operating system); Antigua & Barbuda and Belize (British Honduras) become independent; Canada's constitution is amended by all provinces except Quebec: Charter of Human Rights becomes part of Canada's Constitution; first reusable manned space shuttle launched (USS Columbia); Voyager 2 flies by Saturn relaying first images of planet, the rings, and its moons

1982: Dr. Robert Jarvik implants the first permanent artificial heart, the Jarvik 7, into Dr. Barney Clark. The heart, powered by an external compressor, keeps Clark alive for 112 days.

1982-1985: Israel invades Lebanon in order to expel Palestinian terrorists

1983: St. Kitts & Nevis becomes independent; first American woman in orbit (Sally Ride)

1984: Brunei becomes independent; first non-tethered space walk using jet backpacks (Bruce McCandless and Robert Stewart); first in-orbit retrieval and repair mission

1985: The USDA gives the go-ahead for the sale of the first genetically-altered organism. The rapidly growing biotech industry will seek numerous patents, including one for a tomato that can be shipped when ripe.

1986: The Marshall Islands and Micronesia become independent; Voyager 2 arrives at Uranus and sends back images of the planet and its moons; Challenger space shuttle explodes, shortly after taking off, killing all 7 crew members; Soviet space station Mir is launched into Earth orbit

1987: Meech Lake Accord signed in Canada (The Meech Lake Accord was an agreement designed to satisfy Quebec's claim as a 'Distinct Society' and was designed to get Quebec to accept the 1981 constitutional amendment); Mir becomes the first continuously inhabited space station

1987-Present: Arab Palestinian uprising ('Intifada') in Israeli occupied territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip); the Kurds in Turkey, by themselves constituting a majority of all Kurds, have waged a war of national liberation against Ankara's 70 years of heavy-handed suppression of any vestige of the Kurdish identity and its rich and ancient culture. The massive uprising had by 1995 propelled Turkey into a state of civil war. The burgeoning and youthful Kurdish population in Turkey, is now demanding absolute equality with the Turkish component in that state, and failing that, full independence.

1988: Iran-Iraq war ends; US space shuttles return to service following the Challenger explosion; USSR agrees to withdraw from Afghanistan

1989: Cold War ends (the Berlin Wall is torn down); Canada-US Free Trade Pact implemented; US invades Panama and captures drug trafficker President Manuel Noriega; Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan; Pro-democratic demonstrations in Tiananman Square in Beijing, China results in a military crackdown by Chinese government; first launching of a space probe (Magellan) from the space shuttle; Voyager 2 arrives at Neptune and sends back images of planet and its moons

1990: Namibia becomes independent; West Germany (The Federal Republic of Germany) reunites with East Germany (German Democratic Republic); North and South Yemen reunite; Lebanese Civil war ends; Meech Lake Accord fails to ratify in Canada; Hubble Space Telescope is launched into orbit, it has a defective lens

1991: 1st 'Gulf War' between Iraq and Western Coalition after Iraq invades Kuwait in 1990; Soviet Union ceases to exist (Commonwealth of Independent States is created); Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania all become independent; Slovenia and Croatia become independent from Yugoslavia; European Union (EU) Treaty is signed in which member states agree to merge there currencies and eventually establish a common defense and foreign policy

1992: Bosnia & Herzegovina and Macedonia become independent from Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); Charlottetown Accord is rejected via referendum in Canada (The Charlottetown Accord was an agreement designed to satisfy Quebec's claim as a 'Distinct Society', satisfy the smaller Canadian provinces demands for a revised Senate, and was designed to get Quebec to accept the 1981 constitutional amendment); Islamic rebels in Afghanistan oust President Najibullah

1992-1995: Civil war in Afghanistan among various rebel groups

1993-1994: Israeli-Palestinian Oslo Peace Accords signed giving autonomy to Palestinians in the Israeli occupied territory (West Bank and the Gaza Strip)

1993: The Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Eritrea become independent; EEC (EU) countries unite economically in one free trade bloc; successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope lens

1994: Palau becomes independent; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is implemented (Canada, United States, and Mexico); first Russian to fly on a US spacecraft (Sergei Krikalev)

1995: 2nd referendum on sovereignty (independence) in Canada's province of Quebec: independence plan is rejected by 51% of voters; Cosmonaut Valery Polyyakov returns to Earth after spending a record 437 days, 18 hrs. in space aboard Mir space station; the 'Windows 95' operating system is launched from Microsoft; U.N. brokers truce among nine factions in Afghanistan and sets up a council to rule the country

1996: A fundamentalist Islamic militia called the Taliban in Afghanistan rejects the ruling council and begins a new civil war: Taliban Islamic militia launches a new wave of fighting that culminates in September with the capture of Kabul

1997: Hong Kong is given back to China by the United Kingdom (Great Britain); Pathfinder lander/Sojourner rover exploration mission begins on planet Mars; nuclear-powered Cassini-Huygens probe heads to Saturn; The Taliban in Afghanistan battles an alliance of opposition forces for control of Afghanistan's northern reaches

1998: Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) residents agree to comprehensive peace treaty and a new regional government in a referendum; Albanians in Kosovo revolt (Serbian controlled autonomous state within Yugoslavia); Economic depression in Eastern Asia; Ethiopia-Eritrea border war; independence plan is rejected by voters of Nevis (St. Kitts & Nevis); International Wars Crimes Tribunal is established; the 'Windows 98' operating system is launched from Microsoft; Deep Space 1 is launched using ion propulsion; 2nd Israeli-Palestinian peace treaty; John Glenn, now a 77 year-old Senator from Ohio, goes into space for the 2nd time; First piece of International Space Station is launched; World population is 6 billion

1999: Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic join NATO; Further attacks on Albanians in Kosovo by Serbian controlled Yugoslavia, Western-sponsored Kosovo autonomy accord is signed by Kosovo leaders but is rejected by Yugoslavia; March 24 - NATO launches air war against Yugoslav military targets; Nunavat becomes a new territory within Canada out of eastern and northern part of Northwest Territories; June 9 - Yugoslavia agrees to peace treaty and begins to pull out of Kosovo on June 10; Two Mars probes (worth $313 million in total) are lost - Mars Climate Orbiter & Mars Polar Lander; Portugal gave Macau back to China on December 19; Office 2000 (an upgrade to Office 97) officially launched by Microsoft

2000: Jan 1 00:00 hours, 2000 A.D., Year 2000 problem occurred reverting all electronic circuits and software without proper code to year 1900 (it was actually not very significant); Christian "Diamond Jubilee" (Beginning of 3rd Millennium of Christian Era); Windows 2000 (an upgrade to Windows NT 4.0) is officially launched by Microsoft on February 17, 2000

2001: A terrorist attack on the United States leaves thousands of innocent civilians dead, a horrific tragedy that forces all nations of the world to re-evaluate their values and priorities, and galvanizes the people of Earth to strive harder to put their differences behind them; War on Terror led by the United States beginning in Afghanistan; Mars Surveyor's two-year mapping mission is complete in March; Mars Surveyor 2001 orbiter and lander/rover is launched which will study planet's climate and geology as well as search for evidence of life

2002: The African Union is formed from the old Organization for African Unity: the African Union has the mandate to intervene in countries where security and peace has became a concern; The Comet Nucleus Tour, or CONTOUR, mission is timed to encounter and study at least two comets as they make their periodic visits to the inner solar system

2003: U.S. launched an invasion in Iraq (2nd Persian Gulf War) to oust Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. The rationale for U.S. invasion relied heavily on the claims that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, and that they supported international terrorism, which contributed to the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S. International cooperation was scarce, save the notable exceptions of the United Kingdom and Spain, and many nations explicitly opposed the invasion on the grounds that it was based on flawed evidence and hasty decision-making;  Mars Express mission; A deadly new respiratory virus called SARS captured world attention in early 2003; the space shuttle Columbia disintegrated as it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts aboard;  Mad cow disease was discovered in a cow in Alberta that had been removed from the food processing chain by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, but only examined six months later, this triggered a new crisis as Canadian beef was stopped at the border; A blackout hit major cities in the U.S. and Canada, including New York City , Cleveland, Ohio , Detroit, Michigan , and Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. The blackout left millions without power for periods of time ranging from a few hours to over a day; The Treaty of Nice creates the European Union, the first continental state, and officials have been working on a Draft Constitutional Treaty; Scientists officially discovered the existence of "dark matter", sometimes referred to as "dark energy"; China made history by becoming only the third nation to send a man into space. By sending astronaut Yang Liwei into orbit, China followed Russia and the United States as the only countries to accomplish the feat.; Nine months after the first shots of the Iraqi conflict were fired, U.S. soldiers captured Saddam Hussein in a raid on December 13

2004: Spirit and Opportunity rovers land on Mars in January; U.S. President George W. Bush, in a speech at NASA headquarters, announces a plan to develop a new space vehicle to return humans to the moon by the year 2015 and proposes the retirement of the space shuttle fleet by 2010 along with a $1 billion funding increase for NASA; Mars Express mission control failed to hear any signal from the downed Beagle 2 spacecraft; Iraq's leaders meet deadline for drafting interim constitution; UN Inspectors claim war in Iraq wasn't justified; The Loya jirga adopts a new Constitution of Afghanistan; The British government draws up plans to break up the BBC in the wake of the Hutton inquiry; Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders accept U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan's plan for ending the partition of the island of Cyprus; The European Space Agency announces plans to send humans and robot probes to the Moon and Mars over the next three decades; NASA announces that Mars rover Opportunity landed in an area where "liquid water once drenched the surface"; A detailed survey of birds and butterflies in Britain shows a population decline of 54 percent to 71 percent, a finding that suggests the world may be undergoing another major extinction; Al-Qaeda claims to have purchased "smart briefcase bombs" with nuclear capabilities on the black market; Cassini-Huygens probe will reach Saturn and will send probe to explore Titan (moon of Saturn); Messenger probe will be launched in May to study Mercury; Deep Impact is a radical mission to excavate the interior of a comet and will be launched in December; Stardust will visit Comet Wild 2 in June

2005: Hurricane Katrina made landfall near New Orleans, Louisiana, on August 29, 2005, its storm surge breaching the levees that protected New Orleans from Lake Pontchartrain. Most of the city was subsequently flooded by the lake's waters. This and other major damage to the coastal regions of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama made Katrina the most destructive and costliest tropical cyclone ever to hit the United States; The July 2005 London bombings were synchronised terrorist attacks. The first set of attacks were suicide bombings. Two weeks later a second set of attacks were carried out, apparently failed bombing attempts. Both sets of bombings targeted the city's public transport system, with attacks on the London Underground and the bus network. Fifty-six people, all in the first attack, have been confirmed killed, including four suspected bombers, with 700 injured; MUSES-C is an asteroid sample return mission mounted by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

2006: Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan) create the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA); Launch of Pluto-Kuiper Express which will reach the last unexplored planet, its moon Charon, and the Kuiper asteroid belt; Dawn probe is launched which will delve into the origins of our solar system through intense study of Ceres and Vesta, two minor planets that reside in the vast asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter; The International Astronomical Union defines 'planet' at its 26th General Assembly, demoting Pluto to the status of 'dwarf planet' more than 70 years after its discovery; Israel-Hezbollah War

2007: European Union's Lisbon Treaty signed

2008: Great Recession/Global Financial Crisis starts; South Ossetia War South Ossestia War;

2008: Operation Cast Lead/Gaza War

2009: EU's Lisbon Treaty ratified; Flu pandemic (14,000 worldwide); Barack Hussein Obama is the 44th President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office.

2011: South Sudan becomes independant; Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan; Arab Spring in Muslim world (is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations civil war, and protests); last US reusable manned space shuttle launched (USS Atlantis)

2012: Solar maximum; International Space Station is completed

2015: The Eurasian Economic Union comes into effect, creating a political and economic union between Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.; A global climate change pact is agreed at the COP 21 summit, committing all countries to reduce carbon emissions for the first time.

2016: The United Kingdom votes in a referendum to leave the European Union.

2017: Donald Trump is sworn in as the 45th President of the United States. Trump, a Republican New York City businessman, becomes the first non–political office holder to be elected President of the United States.

2019: The Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) is expected to complete the process of eliminating tariffs on sensitive products, thus establishing a single market throughout most of South America;  COVID-19 Pandemic

Future events based on treaties signed, astronomical events, manned events, or proposed space missions

2028: Institution of African Monetary Union, bringing a common currency to members of the African Union.

2045: United Nations Centennial is celebrated; Futurist Ray Kurzweil predicts a technological singularity for 2045, i.e. a runaway cycle of self-improvement by intelligent machines, resulting in explosive technological development.

2061: Halley's Comet will arrive in the inner Solar System (cycle of 76 years)

2067: Canada's Bicentennial is celebrated

2076: United States' Tricentennial is celebrated